Kingdom (biology)

Kingdom is the highest rank, after the domain, which is normally used in the biological taxonomy of all organisms. Each kingdom is split into phyla.

There are 5 or 6 kingdoms in taxonomy. Every living thing comes under one of these kingdoms and some symbionts, such as lichen, come under two. There are at least:

Overview

Linnaeus
1735[1]
Haeckel
1866[2]
Chatton
1925[3][4]
Copeland
1938[5][6]
Whittaker
1969[7]
Woese et al.
1977[8][9]
Woese et al.
1990[10]
Cavalier-Smith
1993[11][12][13]
Cavalier-Smith
1998[14][15][16]
2 kingdoms 3 kingdoms 2 empires 4 kingdoms 5 kingdoms 6 kingdoms 3 domains 8 kingdoms 6 kingdoms
(not treated) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria Eubacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea Archaebacteria
Eukaryota Protoctista Protista Protista Eucarya Archezoa Protozoa
Protozoa
Chromista Chromista
Vegetabilia Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae
Fungi Fungi Fungi Fungi
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia

The kingdom-level classification of life is still widely employed as a useful way of grouping organisms. Sometimes entries in the table, which are next to each other, do not match perfectly. For example, Haeckel placed the red algae (Haeckel's Florideae; modern Rhodophyta) and blue-green algae (Haeckel's Archephyta; modern Cyanobacteria) in his Plantae, but in modern classifications they are considered protists and bacteria respectively. However, despite these differences, the table gives a useful summary.

  • There is no agreement at present on how many kingdoms there are in the Eukarya. In 2009, Andrew Roger and Alastair Simpson said this: "With the current pace of change in our understanding of the eukaryote tree of life, we should proceed with caution".[17]
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