Kinematics

Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points, bodies (objects) and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without looking at the cause of this motion.[1][2][3] The term was translated from French; A.M. Ampère used the term cinématique.[4] He constructed the term form the Greek κίνημα, kinema (movement, motion), derived from κινεῖν, kinein (to move).[5][6] The study of kinematics is often referred to as the geometry of motion.[7]

To describe motion, kinematics studies the paths of points, lines and other geometric objects in space, and some of their properties such as velocity and acceleration. Astrophysics uses kinematics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and systems. Mechanical engineering, robotics and biomechanics use it to describe the motion of systems composed of joined parts such as an engine, a robotic arm or the skeleton of the human body.[8]

The study of kinematics can be abstracted into purely mathematical functions. It is possible to represent rotation with elements of the unit circle in the complex plane. Other planar algebras are used to represent the shear mapping of classical motion in absolute time and space and to represent the Lorentz transformations of relativistic space and time. Mathematicians have developed a science of kinematic geometry, which uses time as a parameter.

Certain geometric transformations which are called rigid transformations have been developed to describe the movement of components of a mechanical system. These transformations simplify the derivation of its equations of motion, and is central to dynamic analysis.

Kinematic analysis is the process of measuring the kinematic quantities used to describe motion. In engineering, kinematic analysis may be used to find the range of movement for a given mechanism, and, working in reverse, kinematic synthesis designs a mechanism for a desired range of motion.[9] In addition, kinematics applies algebraic geometry to the study of the mechanical advantage of a mechanical system, or mechanism.

  • references

References

  1. Edmund Taylor Whittaker (1904). A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1. ISBN 0-521-35883-3.
  2. Joseph Stiles Beggs (1983). Kinematics. Taylor & Francis. p. 1. ISBN 0-89116-355-7.
  3. Thomas Wallace Wright (1896). Elements of Mechanics Including Kinematics, Kinetics and Statics. E and FN Spon. Chapter 1.
  4. Essai sur la Pilosophie des Sciences. Chez Bachelier.
  5. Merz, John (1903). A History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century. Blackwood, London. p. 5.
  6. O. Bottema & B. Roth (1990). Theoretical Kinematics. Dover Publications. preface, p. 5. ISBN 0-486-66346-9.
  7. See, for example: Russell C. Hibbeler (2009). "Kinematics and kinetics of a particle". Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (12th ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 298. ISBN 0-13-607791-9., Ahmed A. Shabana (2003). "Reference kinematics". Dynamics of Multibody Systems (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54411-5., P. P. Teodorescu (2007). "Kinematics". Mechanical Systems, Classical Models: Particle Mechanics. Springer. p. 287. ISBN 1-4020-5441-6.
  8. A. Biewener (2003). Animal Locomotion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019850022X.
  9. J. M. McCarthy and G. S. Soh, 2010, Geometric Design of Linkages, Springer, New York.
Other Languages
Alemannisch: Kinematik
asturianu: Cinemática
azərbaycanca: Kinematika
беларуская: Кінематыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кінэматыка
български: Кинематика
bosanski: Kinematika
català: Cinemàtica
čeština: Kinematika
dansk: Kinematik
Deutsch: Kinematik
Ελληνικά: Κινητική
English: Kinematics
español: Cinemática
euskara: Zinematika
français: Cinématique
galego: Cinemática
한국어: 운동학
hrvatski: Kinematika
Bahasa Indonesia: Kinematika
italiano: Cinematica
עברית: קינמטיקה
ქართული: კინემატიკა
қазақша: Кинематика
latviešu: Kinemātika
lietuvių: Kinematika
magyar: Kinematika
македонски: Кинематика
Bahasa Melayu: Kinematik
монгол: Кинематик
Nederlands: Kinematica
日本語: 運動学
norsk: Kinematikk
norsk nynorsk: Kinematikk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kinematika
Patois: Kinimatix
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ស៊ីនេម៉ាទិច
Piemontèis: Cinemàtica
polski: Kinematyka
português: Cinemática
română: Cinematică
русский: Кинематика
Scots: Kinematics
shqip: Kinematika
sicilianu: Cinemàtica
slovenčina: Kinematika
slovenščina: Kinematika
српски / srpski: Кинематика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kinematika
Tagalog: Kinematika
Türkçe: Kinematik
українська: Кінематика
اردو: جنبشیات
Tiếng Việt: Chuyển động học
ייִדיש: קינעמאטיק
中文: 运动学