Japan

Japan
日本国
Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku
Anthem: 

"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3]
Government Seal of Japan
  • Seal of the Office of the Prime Minister and the Government of Japan
  • Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)
Projection of Asia with Japan's Area coloured green
Area controlled by Japan shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green
Capital
and largest city
Tokyo[4]
35°41′N 139°46′E / 35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683; 139.767
Official languagesNone[5]
Recognised regional languages
National languageJapanese[5]
Ethnic groups (2011[7])
Religion
  • 51.82% Shinto
  • 34.9% Buddhism
  • 4% Shinto sects
  • 2.3% Christianity
  • 7.0% No answer[8]
DemonymJapanese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Emperor
Akihito
Shinzō Abe
• Deputy Prime Minister
Tarō Asō
LegislatureNational Diet
House of Councillors
House of Representatives
Formation
• National Foundation Day
February 11, 660 BCE[9]
• Meiji Constitution
November 29, 1890
May 3, 1947
• Peace Treaty
April 28, 1952
Area
• Total
377,972 km2 (145,936 sq mi)[10] (61st)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2017 census
126,672,000[11] (10th)
• Density
336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (36th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$5.420 trillion[12] (4th)
• Per capita
$42,860[12] (27th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$4.841 trillion[12] (3rd)
• Per capita
$38,281[12] (20th)
Gini (2008)37.6[13]
medium · 76th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.903[14]
very high · 17th
CurrencyYen (¥) / En (JPY)
Time zoneJST (UTC+9)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+9)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • yyyy年m月d日
  • Era yy年m月d日 (CE−1988)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+81
ISO 3166 codeJP
Internet TLDwww.japan.go.jp
Japan
Literal meaningState of Japan
Japanese name
Kanji日本国
Hiraganaにっぽんこく
にほんこく
Kyūjitai日本國

Japan (Japanese: 日本) is a country in East Asia. It is a group of many islands close to the east coast of Korea, China and Russia. The Pacific Ocean is to the east of Japan and the Sea of Japan is to the west.[15] Most people in Japan live on one of four of the islands. The biggest of these islands, Honshu, has the most people. Honshu is the 7th largest island in the world. Tokyo is the capital of Japan and its biggest city.

The Japanese people call their country "Nihon" or "Nippon",[15] which means "the origin of the Sun" in Japanese. Japan is a monarchy whose head of state is called the Emperor. [15]

History

The earliest records on Japan are from Chinese documents. One of those records said there were many small countries (in Japan) which had wars between them and later a country, ruled by a queen, became the strongest, unified others, and brought peace.

The Japanese began to write their own history after the 5th and 6th centuries, when people from Korea and China taught Japan about the Chinese writing system. Japan's neighbours also taught them Buddhism.[16] The Japanese changed Buddhism in many ways. For example, Japanese Buddhists used ideas such as Zen more than other Buddhists.[16]

In the ancient and Middle Ages, China gave Japan many new cultural ideas, but their friendship became weaker later. In the late 13th century, Mongolians from China tried to invade Japan twice, but they could not.
The samurai and shogun of Medieval Japan are similar to knights and lords in Medieval Europe.

Japan had some contact with the Europeans in the 16th century. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to visit Japan. Later, the Spanish, English and Dutch came to Japan to trade. Also, they brought Christianity. Japan's leaders welcomed them at first, but because Europeans had conquered many places in the world, the Japanese were scared they would conquer Japan too. So the Japanese did not let the Europeans come into Japan anymore, except in a small area in Nagasaki city. Many Christians were killed. Only the Chinese, Korean and Dutch people were allowed to visit Japan, in the end, and they were under careful control of the Japanese government. Japan was opened for visitors again in 1854 by Commodore Matthew Perry, when the Americans wanted to use Japanese ports for American whale boats. Perry brought steamships with guns, which scared the Japanese into making an agreement with him.[17]

This new contact with Europeans and Americans changed the Japanese culture. The Meiji Restoration of 1868 stopped some old ways and added many new ones. The Empire of Japan was created, and it became a very powerful nation and tried to invade the countries next to it. It invaded and annexed Ryukyu Kingdom, Taiwan, and Korea. It had wars with China and Russia: the First Sino-Japanese War, the Boxer Rebellion, the Russo-Japanese War, and the Second Sino-Japanese War, which grew to become a part of World War II when Japan became allies with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.

In 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, a water base of the United States, and destroyed or damaged many ships and airplanes. This started the United States' involvement in World War II. American and Japanese forces fought each other in the Pacific. Once airbases were established within range of the Japanese mainland, America began to win, and started dropping bombs on Japanese cities. America was able to bomb most of the important cities and quickly brought Japan close to defeat. To make Japan surrender, the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing 150,000 Japanese citizens. Soon after this the Soviet Union began to fight against Japan, and the Japanese army in Manchuria lost. Japan surrendered and gave up all the places it took from other countries, accepting the Potsdam Proclamation. The United States occupied Japan and forced it to write a new constitution, in which it promised to never go to war again.

Other Languages
Acèh: Jeupun
Адыгэбзэ: Япон
адыгабзэ: Японие
Afrikaans: Japan
Akan: Japan
Alemannisch: Japan
አማርኛ: ጃፓን
Ænglisc: Iapan
Аҧсшәа: Иапониа
العربية: اليابان
aragonés: Chapón
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܦܢ
arpetan: J·apon
অসমীয়া: জাপান
asturianu: Xapón
Avañe'ẽ: Hapõ
Aymar aru: Nihun
azərbaycanca: Yaponiya
تۆرکجه: ژاپون
বাংলা: জাপান
Bahasa Banjar: Japang
Bân-lâm-gú: Ji̍t-pún
башҡортса: Япония
беларуская: Японія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Японія
भोजपुरी: जापान
Bikol Central: Hapon
Bislama: Japan
български: Япония
Boarisch: Japan
བོད་ཡིག: ཉི་ཧོང་།
bosanski: Japan
brezhoneg: Japan
буряад: Япон Улас
català: Japó
Чӑвашла: Япони
Cebuano: Hapon
čeština: Japonsko
Chamoru: Chapan
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Japón
chiShona: Japan
chiTumbuka: Japan
corsu: Giapponu
Cymraeg: Japan
dansk: Japan
davvisámegiella: Jáhpan
Deitsch: Japan
Deutsch: Japan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖަޕާނު
dolnoserbski: Japańska
डोटेली: जापान
ཇོང་ཁ: ཇ་པཱན
eesti: Jaapan
Ελληνικά: Ιαπωνία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Giapòṅ
English: Japan
español: Japón
Esperanto: Japanio
estremeñu: Japón
euskara: Japonia
eʋegbe: Japan
فارسی: ژاپن
Fiji Hindi: Japan
føroyskt: Japan
français: Japon
Frysk: Japan
furlan: Gjapon
Gaeilge: An tSeapáin
Gagauz: Yaponiya
Gàidhlig: An Iapan
galego: Xapón
ГӀалгӀай: Япони
贛語: 日本
Gĩkũyũ: Japan
ગુજરાતી: જાપાન
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌾𐌰𐍀𐌰𐌽
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जपान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngi̍t-pún
한국어: 일본
Hausa: Japan
Hawaiʻi: Iāpana
հայերեն: Ճապոնիա
हिन्दी: जापान
hornjoserbsce: Japanska
hrvatski: Japan
Bahasa Hulontalo: Japangi
Ido: Japonia
Ilokano: Hapon
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জাপান
Bahasa Indonesia: Jepang
interlingua: Japon
Interlingue: Japan
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓃᑉᐊᓐ
Iñupiak: Japan
Ирон: Япон
isiXhosa: IJapani
isiZulu: IJaphani
íslenska: Japan
italiano: Giappone
עברית: יפן
Basa Jawa: Jepang
Kabɩyɛ: Sapɔŋ
kalaallisut: Japani
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಪಾನ್
Kapampangan: Hapon
къарачай-малкъар: Япония
ქართული: იაპონია
kaszëbsczi: Japòńskô
қазақша: Жапония
kernowek: Nihon
Kinyarwanda: Ubuyapani
Kiswahili: Japani
коми: Япония
Kongo: Japan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Japon
kurdî: Japon
Кыргызча: Япония
кырык мары: Япони
Ladino: Japon
لۊری شومالی: جاپون
latgaļu: Japoneja
Latina: Iaponia
latviešu: Japāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Japan
лезги: Япония
lietuvių: Japonija
Ligure: Giappon
Limburgs: Japan
lingála: Zapɔ́
Lingua Franca Nova: Nion
Livvinkarjala: Japounii
la .lojban.: pongu'e
lumbaart: Giapun
magyar: Japán
मैथिली: जापान
македонски: Јапонија
Malagasy: Japana
മലയാളം: ജപ്പാൻ
Malti: Ġappun
Māori: Nipono
मराठी: जपान
მარგალური: იაპონია
مصرى: اليابان
مازِرونی: جاپون
Bahasa Melayu: Jepun
Baso Minangkabau: Japang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nĭk-buōng
Mirandés: Japon
мокшень: Японмастор
монгол: Япон
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျပန်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Djapan
Nederlands: Japan
Nedersaksies: Japan
नेपाली: जापान
नेपाल भाषा: जापान
日本語: 日本
Napulitano: Giappone
нохчийн: Япон
Nordfriisk: Jaapan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Japan
norsk: Japan
norsk nynorsk: Japan
Nouormand: Japon
Novial: Japan
occitan: Japon
олык марий: Японий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାପାନ
Oromoo: Jaappaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yaponiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਪਾਨ
पालि: जापान
پنجابی: جپان
Papiamentu: Hapon
پښتو: جاپان
Patois: Japan
Перем Коми: Ниппон
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ជប៉ុន
Picard: Japon
Piemontèis: Giapon
Tok Pisin: Siapan
Plattdüütsch: Japan
polski: Japonia
português: Japão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yaponiya
qırımtatarca: Yaponiya
reo tahiti: Tāpōnē
română: Japonia
rumantsch: Giapun
Runa Simi: Nihun
русиньскый: Японія
русский: Япония
саха тыла: Дьоппуон
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱡᱟᱯᱟᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Iapani
संस्कृतम्: जपान्
sardu: Giappone
Scots: Japan
Seeltersk: Japan
Sesotho: Japane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Japane
shqip: Japonia
sicilianu: Giappuni
සිංහල: ජපානය
سنڌي: جاپان
SiSwati: IJaphani
slovenčina: Japonsko
slovenščina: Japonska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Ꙗпѡнїꙗ
ślůnski: Japůńijo
Soomaaliga: Jabaan
کوردی: ژاپۆن
Sranantongo: Japan
српски / srpski: Јапан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Japan
Basa Sunda: Jepang
suomi: Japani
svenska: Japan
Tagalog: Hapon
தமிழ்: யப்பான்
Taqbaylit: Yapan
tarandíne: Giappone
татарча/tatarça: Япония
తెలుగు: జపాన్
tetun: Japaun
ትግርኛ: ጃፓን
тоҷикӣ: Ҷопон
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏣᏩᏂᏏ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Japan
ತುಳು: ಜಪಾನ್
Türkçe: Japonya
Türkmençe: Ýaponiýa
Twi: Yapan
тыва дыл: Япония
удмурт: Япония
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨍᨛᨄ
українська: Японія
اردو: جاپان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ياپونىيە
Vahcuengh: Nditbonj
vèneto: Giapòn
vepsän kel’: Japonii
Tiếng Việt: Nhật Bản
Volapük: Yapän
Võro: Jaapan
文言: 日本
West-Vlams: Japan
Winaray: Hapon
Wolof: Sapoŋ
吴语: 日本
Xitsonga: Japani
ייִדיש: יאפאן
Yorùbá: Japan
粵語: 日本
Zazaki: Japonya
Zeêuws: Japan
žemaitėška: Japuonėjė
中文: 日本