Jamaica

Jamaica
Coat of arms of Jamaica
Coat of arms
Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Location of Jamaica
Capital
and largest city
Kingston
17°59′N 76°48′W / 17°59′N 76°48′W / 17.983; -76.800
Official languagesEnglish
National languageJamaican Patois (de facto)
Ethnic groups (2011[1])
  • 92.1% African
  • 6.1% Mixed
  • 0.8% Indian
  • 0.4% Other
  • 0.7% Unspecified
Religion
[2]
DemonymJamaican
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary representative democracy under constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
• Governor-General
Patrick Allen
Andrew Holness
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Granted
6 August 1962
Area
• Total
10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi) (160th)
• Water (%)
1.5
Population
• 2016 estimate
2,881,355[3] (139th)
• Density
268/km2 (694.1/sq mi) (49th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$26.446 billion[4] (2017)
• Per capita
$9,297[4]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$14.556 billion[4]
• Per capita
$5,117[4]
Gini (2004)45.5[5]
medium · [6]
HDI (2014)Increase 0.719[7]
high · 99th
CurrencyJamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zone(UTC-5)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+1-876
+1-658 (Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)
ISO 3166 codeJM
Internet TLD.jm

Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean; it is part of the Greater Antilles. The island, 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola. Its capital is Kingston; other towns include Montego Bay, St. Ann's Bay and Spanish Town. The island is divided into three counties – Cornwall, Middlesex and Surrey – which are subdivided into 14 parishes: Kingston, St. Andrew, St. Catherine, Clarendon,Manchester, St. Elizabeth, Westmoreland, Hanover, St. James, Trelawny, St. Ann, St. Mary, Portland and St. Thomas.

Jamaica is the third-largest island country in the Greater Antilles. Its Taíno name was Xaymaca, meaning "Land of Springs".[8]

History

The Taino indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC.[9] When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques (chiefs of villages). The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour.[9]

Christopher Columbus, during his second voyage to the Americas, claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there on 5 May 1494 and his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, now called Discovery Bay. There is some debate as to whether he landed in St. Ann's Bay or in Discovery Bay. St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.[10]

In 1503, during his fourth voyage, Columbus had to spend one year on the northern coast of the island, and he named the island Isla de Santiago (by Sant Iago Apostol, in Spanish Santiago).

In 1509, the new Governor of the Hispaniola, Diego Columbus, sent Juan de Esquivel, a Conquistador born in Seville, Spain, with 70 men to Jamaica to complete the conquest of that island. They first lived in the St. Ann's Bay area and soon Esquivel founded a town, Sevilla La Nueva (in English, "The New Seville") on the north coast, one mile to the west of St. Ann's Bay.[11]

Sevilla was abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy.[10] The capital was moved to Spanish Town, then called Saint Jago de la Vega, in the south around 1534.[12]

British rule

In 1654 Oliver Cromwell decided to break the Spanish control of the West Indies and he sent a fleet in an expedition) led by William Penn and General Robert Venables. The fleet arrived to the Santo Domingo island on 13 April 1655 but the British lost in two battles on 17 and 25 April and they decided to move to Jamaica.[13]

On 10 May 1655, Penn and Venables led a successful attack on Jamaica. The Spanish surrendered to the English, freed their slaves and then fled to Cuba. It was this set of freed slaves and their descendants living in the Jamaican mountains who became known as the Maroons.[11]

Independence

After a long period of direct British colonial rule, Jamaica gained a degree of local political control in the late 1930s, and held its first election under full universal adult suffrage in 1944. Jamaica joined nine other U.K. territories in the West Indies Federation in 1958 but withdrew after Jamaican voters rejected membership in 1961. Jamaica got its independence in 1962, remaining a member of the Commonwealth.[14]

Other Languages
Acèh: Jamaika
Адыгэбзэ: Ямайкэ
Afrikaans: Jamaika
Alemannisch: Jamaika
አማርኛ: ጃማይካ
Ænglisc: Iamaica
العربية: جامايكا
aragonés: Chamaica
arpetan: J·amayica
asturianu: Xamaica
Avañe'ẽ: Hamáika
Aymar aru: Xamayka
azərbaycanca: Yamayka
تۆرکجه: جاماییکا
bamanankan: Jamaika
Bân-lâm-gú: Jamaica
башҡортса: Ямайка
беларуская: Ямайка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ямайка
भोजपुरी: जमैका
Bikol Central: Yamaika
български: Ямайка
Boarisch: Jamaika
བོད་ཡིག: ཇ་མའི་ཀ
bosanski: Jamajka
brezhoneg: Jamaika
буряад: Джамайка
català: Jamaica
Чӑвашла: Ямайка
Cebuano: Jamaica
čeština: Jamajka
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Jamaica
chiShona: Jamaica
Cymraeg: Jamaica
dansk: Jamaica
davvisámegiella: Jamaica
Deitsch: Tschameeki
Deutsch: Jamaika
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖެމެއިކާ
dolnoserbski: Jamaika
eesti: Jamaica
Ελληνικά: Τζαμάικα
English: Jamaica
эрзянь: Ямайка
español: Jamaica
Esperanto: Jamajko
estremeñu: Jamaica
euskara: Jamaika
eʋegbe: Jamaica
فارسی: جامائیکا
Fiji Hindi: Jamaica
føroyskt: Jamaika
français: Jamaïque
Frysk: Jamaika
Gaeilge: Iamáice
Gagauz: Yamayka
Gàidhlig: Iaimeuca
galego: Xamaica
Gĩkũyũ: Jamaica
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: जमैका
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Jamaica
한국어: 자메이카
Հայերեն: Ճամայկա
हिन्दी: जमैका
hornjoserbsce: Jamaika
hrvatski: Jamajka
Ido: Jamaika
Igbo: Jamaikạ
Ilokano: Hamaika
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জামাইকা
Bahasa Indonesia: Jamaika
interlingua: Jamaica
Interlingue: Jamaica
Ирон: Ямайкæ
íslenska: Jamaíka
italiano: Giamaica
עברית: ג'מייקה
Basa Jawa: Jamaika
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಜಮೈಕ
Kapampangan: Jamaica
ქართული: იამაიკა
қазақша: Ямайка
kernowek: Jamayka
Kinyarwanda: Jamayika
Kiswahili: Jamaika
коми: Ямайка
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jamayik
kurdî: Jamaîka
Кыргызча: Жамайка
кырык мары: Ямайка
Ladino: Jamaika
лезги: Ямайка
لۊری شومالی: جامائیکا
Latina: Iamaica
latviešu: Jamaika
Lëtzebuergesch: Jamaika
lietuvių: Jamaika
Ligure: Giamaica
Limburgs: Jamaica
lingála: Jamaike
Livvinkarjala: Jamaika
la .lojban.: djamaikas
lumbaart: Giamaica
magyar: Jamaica
македонски: Јамајка
Malagasy: Jamaika
മലയാളം: ജമൈക്ക
Malti: Ġamajka
मराठी: जमैका
მარგალური: იამაიკა
مصرى: چامايكا
مازِرونی: جامائیکا
Bahasa Melayu: Jamaica
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Jamaica
монгол: Ямайк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျမေကာနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Djamaika
Nederlands: Jamaica
Nedersaksies: Jamaika
नेपाल भाषा: जमैका
日本語: ジャマイカ
нохчийн: Ямайка
Nordfriisk: Jamaika
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jamaeka
norsk: Jamaica
norsk nynorsk: Jamaica
Novial: Jamaika
occitan: Jamaica
олык марий: Ямайка
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜାମାଇକା
Oromoo: Jamaayikaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yamayka
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਮੈਕਾ
पालि: जमैका
پنجابی: جمیکا
Papiamentu: Jamaica
پښتو: جمايکا
Patois: Jumieka
Piemontèis: Giamàica
Plattdüütsch: Jamaika
polski: Jamajka
Ποντιακά: Τζαμαίκαν
português: Jamaica
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yamaika
qırımtatarca: Camayka
română: Jamaica
Runa Simi: Shamayka
русиньскый: Ямайка
русский: Ямайка
саха тыла: Дьамайка
Gagana Samoa: Jamaica
संस्कृतम्: जमैका
sardu: Giamàica
Scots: Jamaica
shqip: Xhamajka
sicilianu: Giamaica
سنڌي: جميڪا
SiSwati: IJamayikha
slovenčina: Jamajka
slovenščina: Jamajka
ślůnski: Jamajka
Soomaaliga: Jamayka
کوردی: جامایکا
Sranantongo: Jamaica
српски / srpski: Јамајка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jamajka
Basa Sunda: Jamaika
suomi: Jamaika
svenska: Jamaica
Tagalog: Hamayka
தமிழ்: ஜமேக்கா
татарча/tatarça: Ямайка
తెలుగు: జమైకా
tetun: Jamaika
тоҷикӣ: Ямайка
Türkçe: Jamaika
Türkmençe: Ýamaýka
українська: Ямайка
اردو: جمیکا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يامايكا
Vahcuengh: Jamaica
vèneto: Giamaica
vepsän kel’: Jamaik
Tiếng Việt: Jamaica
Volapük: Camekeän
Võro: Jamaica
文言: 牙買加
Winaray: Jamaica
Wolof: Jamayka
吴语: 牙买加
ייִדיש: דזשאמייקע
Yorùbá: Jamáíkà
粵語: 牙買加
Zazaki: Camayka
Zeêuws: Jamaica
žemaitėška: Jamaika
中文: 牙买加
डोटेली: जमैका
Kabɩyɛ: Camayiki
Lingua Franca Nova: Jamaica