Italy
English: Italy

Italian Republic

Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)
Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian)
"The Song of the Italians"
Italy  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Rome
41°54′N 12°29′E / 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900; 12.483
Official language
and national language
Italiana
Religion
Demonym(s)Italian
GovernmentUnitary constitutional
parliamentary republic
• President
Sergio Mattarella
Giuseppe Conte
• President of the Senate
Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati di Rovigo
• President of the Chamber of Deputies
Roberto Fico
LegislatureParliament
Senate of the Republic
Chamber of Deputies
Formation
17 March 1861
• Republic
2 June 1946
• Founded the EEC (now the European Union)
1 January 1958
Area
• Total
301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
2.4
Population
• 31.12.2016 estimate
60,589,445 Increase[2] (23rd)
• Density
201.3/km2 (521.4/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$2.234 trillion[3] (12th)
• Per capita
$36,833[3] (32nd)
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
• Total
$1.850 trillion[3] (8th)
• Per capita
$30,507[3] (25th)
Gini (2015)32.4[4]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.887[5]
very high · 26th
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+39c
ISO 3166 codeIT
Internet TLD.itd
  1. German is co-official in South Tyrol; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste and the province of Gorizia; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas.
  2. Before 2002, the Italian lira. The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc.[6]
  3. To call Campione d'Italia, it is necessary to use the Swiss code +41.
  4. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Italy is a country in south Europe and a member of the European Union. Its official name is Repubblica Italiana. The Italian flag is green, white and red. Italy is a democratic republic and is a founding member of the European Union.[7] Its President is Sergio Mattarella and its Prime Minister is Giuseppe Conte. Italy is also a member of the G8, as it has the eighth largest Gross Domestic Product in the world.

Before 1861, it was made up of smaller kingdoms and city-states. Italy has become famous for its wine, as well as its food. Some foods are different between regions. Famous dishes include various types of pasta, pizza, and grapes. Olives are much used.

The country's capital, Rome, is one of the most famous cities in the world, as it was the capital of the Roman Empire. Other famous cities in Italy include, Venice, Naples, Genoa, Florence, Palermo, and Milan.

Geography

Satellite image of Italy

Italy is a peninsula, meaning it is encompassed by the sea on all of its sides apart from one side of the country (its north side). Northern Italy is separated from France, Switzerland, and Austria by the Alps,[8] a chain of mountains. Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco in Italian or white mountain in English), the highest mountain in western Europe,[9] belongs to this chain. The second important chain of mountains in Italy is the Apennines (Appennini in Italian), which are in central and southern Italy.

The capital of Italy is Rome where the Roman Empire started. Other cities in Italy are Milan, Turin, Florence, Genoa, Naples, Palermo, and Venice. The country has a number of islands, the biggest of which are Sicily and Sardinia,[10][11] which can be reached by ship or aircraft.

The Po River is the longest river in Italy. It flows through 5 cities: Torino, Piacenza, Cremona Ferrara and Rovigo.[12] The Tiber River runs through the city of Rome.

Northern Italy has some of the biggest lakes in the country, such as Lake Garda, Lake Como, Lake Maggiore and Lake Iseo.[13] Because it is surrounded by the sea, Italy has many kilometers of coast, which brings tourists from all over the world.[14] Tourists also come to see Italy's historical places.[15]

Two very small separate countries are located within Italy. They are San Marino, which is surrounded by part of Northern Italy, and the Vatican City, which is inside Rome.

People and culture

People from Italy are called Italians. Even if an Italian were to leave Italy, it is possible that their descendants could also claim Italian citizenship due to Italian nationality law relying mostly on ius sanguinis or "right of blood" in Latin.[16] Nearly all the Italians are Christians, and most of these are Roman Catholics, which is based in the Vatican City and home to its leader, the Pope.[17] Leonardo da Vinci is a famous artist, he is the creator of the Mona Lisa which is now in the louvre Paris.

The population of Italy is a little over 60 million.[18] About 2.7 million of them live in Rome,[19] and 1.3 million in Milan.[20] As of 31 December 2015, over 5 million foreigners were living in Italy, which is 8.3% of the total population.[21]

The official language of Italy is Italian and in some small areas German, Slovenian or French. People also speak languages such as Sicilian and Sardinian, which are very similar to Italian, but are different dialects of Italian.

There are many different dialects spoken in Italy. They vary between regions and, in some cases, also between provinces.

The people of Italy are mostly descendant from the ancient Romans.

Italy is home to more World Heritage Sites than any other nation in the world.[22] These sites are culturally important and valued according to UNESCO. About 60% of the works of art of the world are in Italy. Italy is also a big wine producer. In 2005 it made over 5 million tonnes.[23]

Major cities

  • Rome
  • Venice
  • Milan
  • Naples

Economy

Italy has a modern social welfare system. The labor market enjoys relative strength, with many foreigners, especially from Romania, working in Italy where the wages are much higher. But it could have been much more workers on the labor market because men and women already retired in the age of 57 and the unemployment rate is relatively high at 8.2 percent.[24][25] Italy's modern society has been built up through loans and now the country has a catastrophic high debt of €1.9trn or 120 percent of the country's total GDP. And the government cannot pay back the loans during the time period the EU wish.[26]

Religion

Italy religiosity
Religionpercent
Christianity
90%
No religion
7%
Islam
2%
Others
1%

Most people in Italy are Roman Catholics, but the Catholic Church is no longer officially the state religion. 87.8% of the people said they were Roman Catholic.[27]Only about a third said they were active members (36.8%). There are also other Christian groups in Italy, more than 700,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians. 180,000 of them belong to the Greek Orthodox Church.[28]

550,000 are Pentecostals and Evangelicals (0.8%). 235,685 Jehovah's Witnesses (0.4%),[29] 30,000 Waldensians,[30] 25,000 Seventh-day Adventists, 22,000 Mormons, 20,000 Baptists, 7,000 Lutherans, 4,000 Methodists.[31]The country's oldest religious minority is the Jewish community. It has roughly 45,000 people. It is no longer the largest non-Christian group.

About 825,000 Muslims live in Italy. Most of them immigrated.[32] (1.4% of the total population) Only 50,000 are Italian citizens. In addition, there are 50,000 Buddhists[33][34] 70,000 Sikh[35] and 70,000 Hindus in Italy.

In Venice, gondolas are a way for people to get around.

Food

During the celebration of Epiphany, it's traditional to eat a special cake called 'Rosca de Reyes' Three Kings Cake. A figure of Baby Jesus is hidden inside the cake. Whoever has the baby Jesus in their piece of cake is the 'Godparent' of Jesus for that year.

Italy also has many famous foods like pasta or pizza.

Regions

Italy is divided into 20 Regions (Regioni in Italian) and every Region is divided into Provinces.

There are 20 Regions. 5 of them have a special status, they are called autonomous. This means that they can make certain local laws more easily. These regions are marked with an asterisk (*) below.

RegionCapitalArea (km²)Population
AbruzzoL'Aquila10,7941,329,000
Aosta Valley*Aosta3,263126,000
ApuliaBari19,3624,076,000
BasilicataPotenza9,992591,000
CalabriaCatanzaro15,0802,007,000
CampaniaNaples13,5955,811,000
Emilia-RomagnaBologna22,1244,276,000
Friuli-Venezia Giulia*Trieste7,8551,222,000
LazioRome17,2075,561,000
LiguriaGenoa5,4211,610,000
LombardyMilan23,8619,642,000
MarcheAncona9,6941,553,000
MoliseCampobasso4,438320,000
PiedmontTurin25,3994,401,000
Sardinia*Cagliari24,0901,666,000
Sicily*Palermo25,7085,030,000
TuscanyFlorence22,9973,677,000
Trentino-Alto Adige*Trento13,6071,007,000
UmbriaPerugia8,456884,000
VenetoVenice18,3914,832,000

Politics

The Head of State is Sergio Mattarella, whose task began in February 2015. Mattarella is currently the President of the Italian Republic. The first president was Enrico De Nicola.

The Head of Government is Paolo Gentiloni, who became Prime Minister on December 12, 2016, succeeding Matteo Renzi. Renzi was previously the Mayor of Florence and is Italy's youngest-ever Prime Minister, at age 39 when taking office.

Italy was one of the first members of the European Union and in 2002 along with 11 other European countries, it changed to using the euro as its official currency. Before this, the Italian lira had been used since 1861.

Anyone who wants to be President of Italy must have Italian citizenship, be at least 50 years old, and must be able to hold political and civil rights.

History

The Colosseum in Rome. Its original name is Flavian Amphitheatre, being built under the Flavian dynasty, an imperial Family of the Ancient Rome.

Before 1861, Italy was not a state. The area was made of a group of separate states, ruled by other countries (such as Austria, France, and Spain). In the 1850s the Earl of Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour was the Head of Government of the "State of Sardinia". He talked to the Austrians in Lombardy and Veneto and said they should create a Northern Italian state. This happened, but other Central and Southern Italian states also joined Piedmont to create a bigger state.

In 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi took control of Sicily, creating the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.[11] Victor Emmanuel II was made the king. But in 1861, Latium and Veneto were still not part of Italy, because they were ruled by the Pope and Austrian Empire.

Veneto was made part of Italy in 1866 after a war with Austria, and Italian soldiers won Latium in 1870. That was when they took away the Pope's power. The Pope, who was angry, said that he was a prisoner to keep Catholic people from being active in politics. That was the year of Italian unification.

Italy participated in World War I as an ally of Great Britain, France, and Russia against the Central Powers. Almost all of Italy's fighting was on the Eastern border, near Austria. After the "Caporetto defeat", Italy thought they would lose the war. But, in 1918, the Central Powers surrendered, and Italy gained the Trentino-South Tyrol, which once was owned by Austria.

In 1922, a new Italian government started. It was ruled by Benito Mussolini, the leader of Fascism in Italy. He became Head of Government and dictator, calling himself "duce" - which means "leader" in Italian. He became friends with German dictator Adolf Hitler. Germany, Japan, and Italy became the Axis Powers and entered World War II together in 1940 against France, Great Britain, and later the Soviet Union. During the war, Italy controlled most of the Mediterranean Sea.

On July 25, 1943, Mussolini was removed by the Great Council of Fascism, and, on September 8, 1943, Badoglio said that the war as an ally of Germany was ended. Italy started fighting as an ally of France and the UK, but Italian soldiers did not know whom to shoot. In Northern Italy, a movement called Resistenza started to fight against the German invaders.

Mussolini tried to make a small Northern Italian fascist state, the Republic of Salò, but it failed. On April 25, 1945, Italy became free. The state became a republic on June 2, 1946, and, for the first time, women were able to vote. Italian people ended the Savoia dynasty and adopted a republic government.

In February 1947, Italy signed a peace treaty with the Allies losing all the colonies and some territorial areas: (Istria and parts of Dalmatia).

Since then Italy has joined NATO and the European Community (as a founding member), becoming one of the seven biggest industrial economies in the world.

Transportation

Rome-Fiumicino Airport was the sixth busiest airport in Europe in 2008.

The railway network in Italy totals 16,627 kilometres (10,332 mi), the 17th longest in the world. High speed trains include ETR-class trains which travel at 300 km/h (190 mph).

Related pages

References

  1. "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2015-10-02.
  2. "National demographic estimate, December 2016". ISTAT. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016 – Italy". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  4. "Gini coefficient of equivalsed disposable income (source: SILC)". Luxembourg: Eurostat. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  5. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  6. "Comune di Campione d'Italia". Comune.campione-d-italia.co.it. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  7. "European Countries". European Union. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
  8. "Alps are the border between Italy and other countries".
  9. "Four missing in Alps avalanche". BBC News. 20 April 2002. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  10. "Biggest Islands in the World".
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Italy: Encarta". MSN. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
  12. Zwingle, Eria. "National Geographic". National Geographic. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
  13. Watson, Philip (19 March 2005). "The lake show". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  14. "Tourism damaging Med's wetlands". BBC News. 15 July 2004. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  15. "Alarm sounded over Italy's treasures". BBC News. 20 November 2002. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  16. "Citizenship by descent". conssanfrancisco.esteri.it. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  17. "Italy". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  18. "Flag Counter: Italy". Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  19. "Rome's Population".
  20. "Milan's Population".
  21. "National demographic balance, 2015". www.istat.it. Italian Government. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  22. "List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites". UNESCO. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
  23. "Countries by wine Production".
  24. http://www.pensionfundsonline.co.uk/113/country-profiles/italy/
  25. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  26. "Rome burns its Euroland bridges". Mail Online. 8 November 2011.
  27. (in Italian) "Italy: 88% of Italians declare themselves Catholic". Corriere della Sera. 2006-01-18. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  28. "The Holy Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta".
  29. (in Italian) Center for Studies on New Religions
  30. (in Italian) Waldensian Evangelical Church
  31. "World Council of Churches".
  32. "UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office".
  33. (in Italian) Italian Buddhist Union
  34. (in Italian) Italian Buddhist Institute "Soka Gakkai"
  35. "Etnomedia".

Other websites

Other Languages
Acèh: Itali
Адыгэбзэ: Италэ
адыгабзэ: Италие
Afrikaans: Italië
Akan: Italy
Alemannisch: Italien
አማርኛ: ጣልያን
Ænglisc: Italia
Аҧсшәа: Италиа
العربية: إيطاليا
aragonés: Italia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܛܠܝܐ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Իտալիա
armãneashti: Italia
arpetan: Étalia
অসমীয়া: ইটালী
asturianu: Italia
Avañe'ẽ: Itália
авар: Италия
Aymar aru: Italiya
azərbaycanca: İtaliya
تۆرکجه: ایتالیا
Bali: Italia
বাংলা: ইতালি
Bân-lâm-gú: Í-tāi-lī
Basa Banyumasan: Italia
башҡортса: Италия
беларуская: Італія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Італія
भोजपुरी: इटली
Bikol Central: Italya
Bislama: Itali
български: Италия
Boarisch: Italien
བོད་ཡིག: ཨི་ཏ་ལི།
bosanski: Italija
brezhoneg: Italia
буряад: Итали
català: Itàlia
Чӑвашла: Итали
Cebuano: Italya
čeština: Itálie
Chamoru: Italia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Italia
Chi-Chewa: Italia
chiShona: Italy
chiTumbuka: Italy
corsu: Italia
Cymraeg: Yr Eidal
dansk: Italien
davvisámegiella: Itália
Deitsch: Idali
Deutsch: Italien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިޓަލީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Italska
डोटेली: इटाली
ཇོང་ཁ: ཨྀཊ་ལི་
eesti: Itaalia
Ελληνικά: Ιταλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Itâglia
English: Italy
español: Italia
Esperanto: Italio
estremeñu: Italia
euskara: Italia
eʋegbe: Italy
فارسی: ایتالیا
Fiji Hindi: Italy
føroyskt: Italia
français: Italie
Frysk: Itaalje
Fulfulde: Italiya
furlan: Italie
Gaeilge: An Iodáil
Gaelg: Yn Iddaal
Gagauz: İtaliya
Gàidhlig: An Eadailt
galego: Italia
ГӀалгӀай: Итали
贛語: 意大利
Gĩkũyũ: Itari
ગુજરાતી: ઈટલી
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌻𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: इटली
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yi-thai-li
한국어: 이탈리아
Hausa: Italiya
Hawaiʻi: ʻĪkālia
հայերեն: Իտալիա
हिन्दी: इटली
hornjoserbsce: Italska
hrvatski: Italija
Ido: Italia
Igbo: Italy
Ilokano: Italia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইতালি
Bahasa Indonesia: Italia
interlingua: Italia
Interlingue: Italia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Italy
Ирон: Итали
isiXhosa: IItaly
isiZulu: ITaliya
íslenska: Ítalía
italiano: Italia
עברית: איטליה
Jawa: Itali
Kabɩyɛ: Itaalii
kalaallisut: Italia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇಟಲಿ
Kapampangan: Italya
къарачай-малкъар: Италия
ქართული: იტალია
kaszëbsczi: Italskô
қазақша: Италия
kernowek: Itali
Kinyarwanda: Ubutaliyani
Kirundi: Ubutariyano
Kiswahili: Italia
коми: Италия
Kongo: Italia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Itali
kriyòl gwiyannen: Itali
kurdî: Îtalya
Кыргызча: Италия
Ladino: Italia
لۊری شومالی: ایتالٛیا
latgaļu: Italeja
Latina: Italia
latviešu: Itālija
Lëtzebuergesch: Italien
лезги: Италия
lietuvių: Italija
Ligure: Italia
Limburgs: Italië
lingála: Italya
Lingua Franca Nova: Italia
Livvinkarjala: Itualii
la .lojban.: italias
Luganda: Yitale
lumbaart: Itàlia
magyar: Olaszország
मैथिली: इटाली
македонски: Италија
Malagasy: Italia
മലയാളം: ഇറ്റലി
Malti: Italja
Māori: Itāria
मराठी: इटली
მარგალური: იტალია
مصرى: ايطاليا
مازِرونی: ایتالیا
Bahasa Melayu: Itali
Minangkabau: Italia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: É-dâi-lé
Mirandés: Eitália
мокшень: Италие
монгол: Итали
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီတလီနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Italia
Dorerin Naoero: Itari
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Itali
Nederlands: Italië
Nedersaksies: Italiën
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᐃᑕᓖ
नेपाली: इटाली
नेपाल भाषा: इटाली
日本語: イタリア
Napulitano: Italia
ߒߞߏ: ߌߕߊߟߌ߫
нохчийн: Итали
Nordfriisk: Itaalien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Italii
norsk: Italia
norsk nynorsk: Italia
Nouormand: Italie
Novial: Italia
occitan: Itàlia
олык марий: Италий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇଟାଲୀ
Oromoo: Xaaliyaanii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Italiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਟਲੀ
पालि: इटली
Pälzisch: Italien
Pangasinan: Italia
پنجابی: اٹلی
Papiamentu: Italia
پښتو: اېټاليا
Patois: Itali
Перем Коми: Италья
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ៊ីតាលី
Picard: Italie
Piemontèis: Italia
Tok Pisin: Itali
Plattdüütsch: Italien
polski: Włochy
Ποντιακά: Ιταλία
português: Itália
Qaraqalpaqsha: İtaliya
qırımtatarca: İtaliya
reo tahiti: ’Itāria
Ripoarisch: Italie
română: Italia
romani čhib: Italiya
rumantsch: Italia
Runa Simi: Italya
русиньскый: Італія
русский: Италия
саха тыла: Италия
Sakizaya: Italy
Gagana Samoa: Italia
संस्कृतम्: इटली
Sängö: Italùii
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱴᱟᱞᱤ
sardu: Itàlia
Scots: Italy
Seeltersk: Italien
Sesotho: Ithali
Sesotho sa Leboa: Italia
Setswana: Italia
shqip: Italia
sicilianu: Italia
සිංහල: ඉතාලිය
سنڌي: اٽلي
SiSwati: INtaliyane
slovenčina: Taliansko
slovenščina: Italija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їталїꙗ
ślůnski: Italijo
Soomaaliga: Talyaaniga
کوردی: ئیتالیا
Sranantongo: Italiyanikondre
српски / srpski: Италија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Italija
Sunda: Italia
suomi: Italia
svenska: Italien
Tagalog: Italya
தமிழ்: இத்தாலி
Taqbaylit: Ṭelyan
tarandíne: Itaglie
татарча/tatarça: Италия
తెలుగు: ఇటలీ
tetun: Itália
ትግርኛ: ኢጣልያ
тоҷикӣ: Итолиё
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎢᏔᎵ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Italy
Tshivenda: Italy
ತುಳು: ಇಟಲಿ
Türkçe: İtalya
Türkmençe: Italiýa
Twi: Italy
тыва дыл: Италия
удмурт: Италия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Italia
українська: Італія
اردو: اطالیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىتالىيە
Vahcuengh: Eiqdaihleih
vèneto: Itałia
vepsän kel’: Italii
Tiếng Việt: Ý
Volapük: Litaliyän
Võro: Itaalia
walon: Itåleye
文言: 義大利
West-Vlams: Itoalië
Winaray: Italya
Wolof: Itaali
吴语: 意大利
Xitsonga: Ithali
ייִדיש: איטאליע
Yorùbá: Itálíà
粵語: 意大利
Zazaki: İtalya
Zeêuws: Itâlië
žemaitėška: Italėjė
中文: 意大利