Intermolecular force

In physics, chemistry, and biology, intermolecular forces are forces that act between stable molecules or between functional groups of macromolecules.

These forces are generally much weaker than the chemical bonding forces. Their bonding energies are less than a few kcal/mol. But they are responsible for many different physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. In general one distinguishes short and long range intermolecular forces.

Hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen bonding is an intermolecular interaction with a hydrogen atom being present in the intermolecular bond. Hydrogen-bonding-in-water-2D.png

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