Homo georgicus

Homo georgicus
Temporal range: Pleistocene
Dmanisi cranium D2700 (B).jpg
Skull D2700 (Replica)
Scientific classification
Species:H. georgicus
Binomial name
Homo georgicus
Vekua et al., 2002
Fossil skull from Dmanisi.

Homo georgicus is a species of Homo that was proposed in 2002. It is based on fossil skulls and jaws found in Dmanisi, Georgia in 1999 and 2001, which seem intermediate between Homo habilis and H. erectus.[1]

A partial skeleton was discovered in 2001. The fossils are about 1.8 million years old. The remains were first discovered in 1991 by Georgian scientist, David Lordkipanidze, accompanied by an international team which unearthed the remains. Implements and animal bones were found alongside the ancient human remains.

At first, scientists thought they had found mandibles and skulls belonging to Homo ergaster, but size differences led them to name a new species.


Location of discovery
Drawing of Dmanisi skull D-2282

Small skull

At around 600 cm³ brain volume, the skull D2700 is dated to 1.77 million years old and it is in good condition. The cranium was the smallest and most primitive Hominin skull ever discovered outside of Africa.

In Africa, the Australopithecines and early Homo represent two distinctive evolutionary paths sharing a common ancestor. In Georgia the specimens, with a brain half the size of anatomically modern humans, were the smallest found until the discovery of Homo floresiensis on the island of Flores in 2003.

There is a strong sexual dimorphism present, with males being significantly larger than females. This is a primitive trait, less obvious in more recent human species in Europe (i.e. Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis).

The small size of this species contrasts with the much larger size of Homo erectus. H. georgicus was the first species of Homo to settle in Europe, some 800,000 years before H. erectus.

Later, four fossil skeletons were found, showing a species primitive in its skull and upper body but with relatively advanced spines and lower limbs, providing greater mobility. They are now thought to represent a stage soon after the transition between Australopithecus and Homo erectus, and have been dated at 1.8 million years before the present.[2][3] The assemblage includes one of the largest Pleistocene Homo mandibles (D2600), one of the smallest Lower Pleistocene mandibles (D211), a nearly complete sub-adult (D2735), and a specimen without teeth (D3900).[4]

Other Languages
العربية: إنسان جورجيا
azərbaycanca: Homo georgicus
تۆرکجه: گورجو آدام
български: Homo georgicus
čeština: Homo georgicus
español: Homo georgicus
français: Homo georgicus
Bahasa Indonesia: Homo georgicus
italiano: Homo georgicus
ქართული: Homo georgicus
Lëtzebuergesch: Homo georgicus
Nederlands: Dmanisi-mensen
português: Homo georgicus
slovenčina: Človek gruzínsky
tarandíne: Homo georgicus
Türkçe: Homo georgicus
українська: Людина грузинська
Tiếng Việt: Homo georgicus