Drawing of Dmanisi skull D-2282
At around 600 cm³ brain volume, the skull D2700 is dated to 1.77 million years old and it is in good condition. The cranium was the smallest and most primitive Hominin skull ever discovered outside of Africa.
In Africa, the Australopithecines and early Homo represent two distinctive evolutionary paths sharing a common ancestor. In Georgia the specimens, with a brain half the size of anatomically modern humans, were the smallest found until the discovery of Homo floresiensis on the island of Flores in 2003.
There is a strong sexual dimorphism present, with males being significantly larger than females. This is a primitive trait, less obvious in more recent human species in Europe (i.e. Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis).
The small size of this species contrasts with the much larger size of Homo erectus. H. georgicus was the first species of Homo to settle in Europe, some 800,000 years before H. erectus.
Later, four fossil skeletons were found, showing a species primitive in its skull and upper body but with relatively advanced spines and lower limbs, providing greater mobility. They are now thought to represent a stage soon after the transition between Australopithecus and Homo erectus, and have been dated at 1.8 million years before the present. The assemblage includes one of the largest Pleistocene Homo mandibles (D2600), one of the smallest Lower Pleistocene mandibles (D211), a nearly complete sub-adult (D2735), and a specimen without teeth (D3900).