• H:IPAE

Throughout Wikipedia, the pronunciation of words is indicated by means of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The following tables list the IPA symbols used for English words and pronunciations. Please note that several of these symbols are used in ways that are specific to Wikipedia and differ from those used by dictionaries.

If the IPA symbols are not displayed properly by your browser, see the links below.

If you are adding a pronunciation using this key, such pronunciations should generally be formatted using the template {{IPAc-en}}. The template provides tooltips for each symbol in the pronunciation. See the template page for instructions.


If the words given as examples for two different symbols sound the same to you (for example, if you pronounce cot and caught the same, or do and dew, or marry and merry), you can pronounce those symbols the same in explanations of all words. The footnotes explain some of these mergers. (See also Dialect variation below.)

If there is an IPA symbol you are looking for that you do not see here, see Help:IPA, which is a more complete list. For a table listing all spellings of the sounds on this page, see English orthography § Sound-to-spelling correspondences. For help converting spelling to pronunciation, see English orthography § Spelling-to-sound correspondences.

IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, adage[1]
[2] giant, badge, jam
ð thy, breathe, father
f fan, caff, phi
ɡ (ɡ)[3] guy, bag
h high, ahead
hw why[4]
j[5] yes, hallelujah
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal[6]
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
p pie, spy, cap
r[7] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom[1]
[2] China, catch
θ thigh, math
v vie, have
w wye, swine
z zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[8]
Marginal segments
IPA Examples
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[9]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
ɒ̃ bon vivant[10]
æ̃ fin de siècle[10]
Full vowels ...followed by R[11]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ɑː PALM, bra ɑːr START, star
ɒ LOT, pod, John, blockade[12] ɒr moral, forage
æ TRAP, pad, tattoo[13][14] ær barrow, marry[15]
PRICE, ride, pie[16] aɪər Ireland, hire
aɪ.ər higher, buyer[17]
MOUTH, loud, down, how[16] aʊər flour
aʊ.ər flower[17]
ɛ DRESS, bet, prestige[18] ɛr error, merry[18]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, mare, scarce, cairn, Mary[19]
eɪ.ər player[17]
ɪ KIT, lid, historic ɪr mirror, Sirius
FLEECE, seed, mean, sea ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious[20]
iː.ər freer
GOAT, code, go, foal[21] oʊ.ər mower
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[22] ɔːr NORTH, FORCE, horse, hoarse, oral[23][24]
ɔː.ər sawer
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, boy ɔɪər coir
ɔɪ.ər employer[17]
ʊ FOOT, good, full, woman ʊr courier
GOOSE, food, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist[24]
uː.ər truer
juː cute, mule, puny, beauty, huge, tune[25] jʊər CURE
juː.ər fewer
ʌ STRUT, bud, untidy, justiciable[26][27] ɜːr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry, Berlin[28]
ʌr hurry, nourish[29]
Reduced vowels and syllabic consonants
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ə COMMA, ago, quiet, focus ər LETTER, perceive
əl bottle (either [əl] or [l̩])
ən button (either [ən] or [n̩])
əm rhythm (either [əm] or [m̩])
i HAPPY, serious (either /iː/ or /ɪ/)[30] u influence (either /ʊ/ or /uː/)
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntəˈneɪʃən/,[31]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[32]
. /haɪər/ hire, /ˈhaɪ.ər/ higher[33]


  • The IPA stress mark (ˈ) comes before the syllable that has the stress, in contrast to stress marking in pronunciation keys of some dictionaries published in the United States.
  • Words in SMALL CAPITALS are the standard lexical sets. Words in the lexical sets BATH and CLOTH may be given two transcriptions, either with /ɑː/ and /ɔː/, or with /æ/ and /ɒ/, respectively.
Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Pang-chān:IPA/Eng-gí
ગુજરાતી: મદદ:IPA for English
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Wikipedia:IPA for English