German language

German
Deutsch
Pronunciation[dɔʏtʃ]
Native toPrimarily German-speaking Europe, also in the worldwide German-speaking diaspora
Native speakers
90 million (2010)[1] to 95 million (2014)[2]
L2 speakers: 10–15 million (2014)[2]
Early forms
Old High German
Standard forms
German Standard German
Swiss Standard German
Austrian Standard German
Latin (German alphabet)
German Braille
Signed forms
Signed German, LBG
(Lautsprachbegleitende / Lautbegleitende Gebärden)
Official status
Official language in


Several international institutions
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byNo official regulation
(German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography[3]).
Language codes
de
deu (T)
deu – gmh – goh – gct – bar – cim – geh – ksh – nds – Low German[a]
sli – ltz – Luxembourgish[b]
vmf – mhn – pfl – pdc – pdt – Plautdietsch[c]
swg – gsw – uln – sxu – wae – wep – hrx – yec – Yenish
high1287  High Franconian[4]
uppe1397  Upper German[5]
Linguasphere
further information
52-AC (Continental West Germanic)
> 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch)
> 52-ACB-d (Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German)
+ 52-ACB-e & -f (Upper German & Swiss German)
+ 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl. 52-ACB-hc Hutterite German & 52-ACB-he Pennsylvania German etc.)
+ 52-ACB-i (Yenish);
Totalling 285 varieties: 52-ACB-daa to 52-ACB-i
Legal statuses of German in the world.svg
     (Co-)Official and majority language

     Co-official, but not majority language     Statutory minority/cultural language

     Non-statutory minority language
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The German language (German: Deutsch or (die) deutsche Sprache) is a West Germanic language in the Indo-European language family.

It is spoken in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Luxembourg; natively by around 100 million people. It is the most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union. There are some people who speak German in Belgium and in the Netherlands, as well as in France and Northern Italy. There are people who speak German in many countries, including the United States and Canada, where many people emigrated from Germany. In Eastern Europe, too, in Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, etc.

German is a part of the West Germanic language family (a group of languages that are similar) and is much like English and Dutch. A lot of the vocabulary in German is related to English, but the grammar is more complicated. German has a system of cases, and when helping verbs are used, the main part of the verb must be moved to the end of the sentence. For example, "Someone has stolen my car" is Jemand hat mein Auto gestohlen (Someone has my car stolen) or, "Someone called me last night" is Jemand hat mich letzte Nacht angerufen (Someone has me last night called).

In German writing, every noun must start with a capital letter. English and Danish also did this long ago, but not now. Today, German is the only language that has this rule.

While German is an official language in Switzerland, the Swiss dialect of German is difficult for native speakers from Germany, and even for Swiss who are not native to speaking German, to understand. One reason why the dialects are still so different today is that even though Switzerland adopted Standard German, mostly as a written standard, German Swiss in WWII wanted to separate themselves from the Nazis by choosing to speak the Swiss dialect over the standard dialect.[6] Swiss German also has some differences in writing, for example, the letter ß, which is only seen in German, is always replaced by ss.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Джэрмэныбзэ
адыгабзэ: Германыбзэ
Afrikaans: Duits
Alemannisch: Deutsche Sprache
አማርኛ: ጀርመንኛ
Ænglisc: Þēodsc sprǣc
العربية: لغة ألمانية
aragonés: Idioma alemán
armãneashti: Limba ghermãnescã
arpetan: Alemand
asturianu: Idioma alemán
Avañe'ẽ: Alemañañe'ẽ
Aymar aru: Aliman aru
azərbaycanca: Alman dili
تۆرکجه: آلمان دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Tek-gí
Basa Banyumasan: Basa Jerman
башҡортса: Немец теле
беларуская: Нямецкая мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нямецкая мова
भोजपुरी: जर्मन भाषा
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Aleman
български: Немски език
Boarisch: Deitsche Sproch
བོད་ཡིག: འཇར་མན་སྐད།
bosanski: Njemački jezik
brezhoneg: Alamaneg
català: Alemany
Чӑвашла: Нимĕç чĕлхи
Cebuano: Inaleman
čeština: Němčina
Cymraeg: Almaeneg
davvisámegiella: Duiskkagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: އަލްމާނީ
dolnoserbski: Nimšćina
eesti: Saksa keel
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tedèsch
español: Idioma alemán
Esperanto: Germana lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga alemana
euskara: Aleman
Fiji Hindi: German bhasa
føroyskt: Týskt mál
français: Allemand
Frysk: Dútsk
Fulfulde: Almankoore
Gaelg: Germaanish
Gàidhlig: Gearmailtis
ГӀалгӀай: Немций мотт
贛語: 德語
ગુજરાતી: જર્મન ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tet-ngî
хальмг: Немшин келн
한국어: 독일어
հայերեն: Գերմաներեն
हिन्दी: जर्मन भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Němčina
hrvatski: Njemački jezik
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জার্মান ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Jerman
interlingua: Lingua german
Interlingue: German
isiXhosa: IsiJamani
isiZulu: IsiJalimani
íslenska: Þýska
italiano: Lingua tedesca
עברית: גרמנית
Basa Jawa: Basa Jerman
Kabɩyɛ: Caama kʊnʊŋ
kalaallisut: Tyskisut
къарачай-малкъар: Немец тил
kaszëbsczi: Miemiecczi jãzëk
қазақша: Неміс тілі
kernowek: Almaynek
Kinyarwanda: Ikidage
Kiswahili: Kijerumani
Kongo: Kidoitce
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang alman
Кыргызча: Немис тили
لۊری شومالی: زون آلمانی
latviešu: Vācu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Däitsch
лезги: Немец чIал
lietuvių: Vokiečių kalba
Limburgs: Duits
lingála: Lialémani
Lingua Franca Nova: Deutx (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Germuanien kieli
la .lojban.: dotybau
lumbaart: Lengua Tudesca
magyar: Német nyelv
मैथिली: जर्मन भाषा
македонски: Германски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny alemana
മലയാളം: ജർമ്മൻ ഭാഷ
Māori: Reo Tiamana
მარგალური: გერმანული ნინა
مازِرونی: آلمانی زبون
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Jerman
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Jerman
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dáik-ngṳ̄
Mirandés: Lhéngua almana
монгол: Герман хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျာမန်ဘာသာ
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Djermani
Nederlands: Duits
Nedersaksies: Duuts
नेपाली: जर्मन भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: जर्मन भाषा
日本語: ドイツ語
Napulitano: Lengua germanese
нохчийн: Немцойн мотт
Nordfriisk: Tjüsch
Norfuk / Pitkern: Jirman
norsk: Tysk
norsk nynorsk: Tysk
Nouormand: Allemaund
Novial: Germanum
occitan: Alemand
олык марий: Немыч йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nemis tili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਰਮਨ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ
Pälzisch: Deutsche Sprache
Pangasinan: Salitan Alemano
پنجابی: جرمن
Papiamentu: Alemán
Patois: Joerman
Перем Коми: Немеч кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាអាល្លឺម៉ង់
Picard: Alemant
Piemontèis: Lenga tedësca
Tok Pisin: Tok Jeman
Plattdüütsch: Düütsche Spraak
português: Língua alemã
Qaraqalpaqsha: Nemis tili
qırımtatarca: Alman tili
reo tahiti: Reo Heremani
Ripoarisch: Dütsche Sprooch
română: Limba germană
rumantsch: Lingua tudestga
Runa Simi: Aliman simi
русиньскый: Нїмецькый язык
саха тыла: Ниэмэс тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asiamani
संस्कृतम्: जर्मन् भाषा
Seeltersk: Düütsk
Sesotho: Sejeremane
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sejeremane
Setswana: Sejeremane
sicilianu: Lingua tidesca
SiSwati: SíJalimáne
slovenčina: Nemčina
slovenščina: Nemščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Нѣмьчьскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Mjymjecko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Jarmal
српски / srpski: Немачки језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nemački jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Jérman
svenska: Tyska
Tagalog: Wikang Aleman
tarandíne: Lènga tedesche
татарча/tatarça: Alman tele
తెలుగు: జర్మన్ భాష
Türkçe: Almanca
Türkmençe: Nemes dili
удмурт: Немец кыл
українська: Німецька мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نېمىس تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vah Dwzgoz
vepsän kel’: Saksan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Đức
Volapük: Deutänapük
文言: 德語
West-Vlams: Duuts
Winaray: Inaleman
吴语: 德语
ייִדיש: דייטש
粵語: 德文
Zazaki: Almanki
Zeêuws: Duuts
žemaitėška: Vuokītiu kalba
中文: 德语