European Union

Circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background
Motto: "In Varietate Concordia" (Latin)
"United in Diversity"
Anthem: "Ode to Joy" (orchestral)
Globe projection with the European Union in green
CapitalBrussels (de facto)[1]
Largest cityLondon
Official languages
Official scripts[3]
Religion
Demonym(s)European
TypePolitical and economic union
Member states
GovernmentSupranational and intergovernmental
Donald Tusk
David Sassoli
Jean-Claude Juncker
Legislaturesee "Politics" section below
Formation[5]
1 January 1958
• Single European Act
1 July 1987
1 November 1993
1 December 2009
• Last polity admitted
1 July 2013
Area
• Total
4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) (7th)
• Water (%)
3.08
Population
• 2019 estimate
Increase 513,481,691[6] (3rd)
• Density
117.2/km2 (303.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
Increase $22.0 trillion[7] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $43,150[7]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
Increase $18.8 trillion[7] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $36,580
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 30.7[8]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.899[c]
very high
CurrencyEuro (EUR; ; in eurozone) and
Time zoneUTC to UTC+2 (WET, CET, EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 to UTC+3 (WEST, CEST, EEST)
(see also Summer Time in Europe)
Note: with the exception of the Canary Islands and Madeira, the outermost regions observe different time zones not shown.[d]
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD/CE)
See also: Date and time notation in Europe
Internet TLD.eu[e]
Website
europa.eu

The European Union (abbreviation: EU) is a confederation[1] of 28 member countries in Europe established by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992-1993. The EU grew out of the European Economic Community (EEC) which was established by the Treaties of Rome in 1957. It has created a common economic area with Europe-wide laws allowing the citizens of EU countries to move and trade in other EU countries almost the same as they do in their own. Nineteen of these countries also share the same type of money: the euro.

The Treaty of Lisbon is the most recent treaty that says how the Union is run. Every member state signed to say that they each agreed with what it says. Most importantly, it says which jobs (’powers’) the Union should do for the members and which jobs they should do themselves. The members decide how the Union should act by voting for or against proposals.

The objective of the EU is to bring its member states closer together with respect of human rights and democracy. It does this with a common style of passport, common rules about fair trading with each other, common agreements about law enforcement, and other agreements. Most members share a common currency (the euro) and most allow people to travel from one country to another without having to show a passport.

History

Quai d'Orsay (Paris). Robert Schuman gave the speech starting the plan for a European Coal and Steel Community in 1950

After World War II, the countries in Europe wanted to live peacefully together and help one another's economies. Instead of fighting each other for coal and steel, the first member countries (West) Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg created one European Coal and Steel Community in 1952.

In 1957 in the Italian city of Rome, the member countries signed another treaty and made the European Economic Community. Now it was a community for coal, steel and for trade. Later it changed the name to the European Community.

In 1993, with the Treaty of Maastricht it changed its name to the European Union. Now the member countries work together not only in politics and economy (coal, steel and trade), but also in money, justice (laws), and foreign affairs. With the Schengen Agreement, 22 member countries of the EU opened their borders to each other, so people can now travel from one country to the other without a passport or identity card. Now already 16 member countries have replaced their national currencies with the euro. 10 new countries became members of the EU in 2004, 2 more became members in 2007, and 1 more in 2013. Today there are 28 member countries altogether.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Europese Unie
Alemannisch: Europäische Union
aragonés: Unión Europea
armãneashti: Uniunea Europeană
asturianu: Xunión Europea
azərbaycanca: Avropa İttifaqı
bamanankan: Eropa Jɛkulu
Bân-lâm-gú: Au-chiu Liân-bêng
башҡортса: Европа берлеге
беларуская: Еўрапейскі Саюз
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эўрапейскі Зьвяз
Bikol Central: Union Europea
български: Европейски съюз
bosanski: Evropska unija
brezhoneg: Unaniezh Europa
català: Unió Europea
čeština: Evropská unie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Unión Europea
Chi-Chewa: European Union
davvisámegiella: Eurohpá uniovdna
dolnoserbski: Europska unija
español: Unión Europea
Esperanto: Eŭropa Unio
estremeñu: Unión Uropea
Fiji Hindi: European Union
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Êu-chû Lièn-mèn
한국어: 유럽 연합
Արեւմտահայերէն: Եւրոպական Միութիւն
hornjoserbsce: Europska unija
hrvatski: Europska unija
Bahasa Indonesia: Uni Eropa
interlingua: Union Europee
Interlingue: Europan Union
italiano: Unione europea
Kabɩyɛ: UE ŋgbɛyɛ
kalaallisut: EU
къарачай-малкъар: Европа бирлик
қазақша: Еуропа одағы
kernowek: Unyans Europek
Kiswahili: Umoja wa Ulaya
Kreyòl ayisyen: Inyon Ewopeyèn
Lëtzebuergesch: Europäesch Unioun
lietuvių: Europos Sąjunga
Limburgs: Europese Unie
Lingua Franca Nova: Uni European
la .lojban.: ropno gunma
lumbaart: Üniun Eurupea
македонски: Европска Унија
მარგალური: ევროპაშ რსხუ
مازِرونی: اروپای اتحادیه
Bahasa Melayu: Kesatuan Eropah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĕu-ciŭ Lièng-mèng
Mirandés: Ounion Ouropeia
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဥရောပ သမဂ္ဂ
Nederlands: Europese Unie
Nedersaksies: Europese Unie
नेपाल भाषा: युरोपियन युनियन
日本語: 欧州連合
Napulitano: Aunione europea
нохчийн: Европан барт
Nordfriisk: Europäisch Unjoon
norsk nynorsk: Den europeiske unionen
олык марий: Европа Ушем
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yevropa Ittifoqi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯੂਰਪੀ ਸੰਘ
پنجابی: یورپی یونین
Papiamentu: Union Oropeo
Перем Коми: Ӧтласа Европа
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហភាពអឺរ៉ុប
Piemontèis: Union Europenga
Plattdüütsch: Europääsche Union
português: União Europeia
qırımtatarca: Avropa Birligi
romani čhib: Europikano Ekipen
rumantsch: Uniun europeica
Runa Simi: Iwrupa Huñu
русиньскый: Европска унія
Gagana Samoa: Iuni a Europa
sicilianu: Unioni Europea
slovenčina: Európska únia
slovenščina: Evropska unija
Soomaaliga: Midowga Yurub
српски / srpski: Европска унија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Evropska unija
Sunda: Uni Éropa
tarandíne: Aunìone europèe
татарча/tatarça: Аурупа берлеге
Türkçe: Avrupa Birliği
удмурт: Европа союз
українська: Європейський Союз
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ياۋروپا ئىتتىپاقى
vèneto: Union Eoropea
vepsän kel’: Evropan Ühtištuz
Tiếng Việt: Liên minh châu Âu
Volapük: Balatam Yuropik
West-Vlams: Europese Unie
Winaray: Unyon Europea
吴语: 欧洲联盟
粵語: 歐洲聯盟
Zeêuws: Europese Unie
žemaitėška: Euruopas Sājonga
中文: 欧洲联盟