Erosion

Erosion has removed soil from this forest.

Erosion is a process where natural forces like water, wind, ice, and gravity wear away rocks and soil. It is a geological process, and part of the rock cycle. Erosion occurs at the Earth's surface, and has no effect on the Earth's mantle and core.

Most of the energy that makes erosion happen is provided by the Sun. The Sun's energy causes the movement of water and ice in the water cycle and the movement of air to create wind.

Erosion can cause problems that affect humans. Soil erosion, for example, can create problems for farmers. Soil erosion can remove soil, leaving a thin layer or rocky soil behind. Erosion can also cause problems for humans by removing rocks or soil that support buildings.

Erosion can be caused by natural elements such as wind and ice.

Erosion by water

Water moving downhill can carry away pieces of rock and soil

Temperature changes cause pieces of rock to flake away from the surface. Also, the acid in rainwater dissolves rocks containing calcium carbonate. These processes are called weathering.

Water erosion happens when water moves the pieces of rock or soil downhill. Waves also carry away small pieces of material. A wave can wash up onto the surface of rock or soil and then carry away pieces of material as it flows back into the ocean or lake.

The size of earth materials that can be moved by water depends on how fast the water is moving. A fast-flowing stream can carry large rocks while a slow-moving stream might only be able to carry very small things like clay. Canyons are among the most obvious features made by erosion. Where a river meets the sea, it drops the solids, sometimes making a river delta.

Tropical rivers

Drainage basin of the Amazon
The Aletsch Glacier is the biggest glacier in the Alps
Wind is blowing sand off this dune in the Mojave desert, California

Large tropical rivers like the Paraná, Indus, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Zambezi, Mississippi and the Amazon carry huge amounts of sediment down to the sea. The Nile, perhaps the world's longest river, carries much less sediment than the others because, part of the way, it runs through less fertile regions than the other great rivers.

The Amazon has by far the largest waterflow, with an average discharge greater than the next seven largest rivers combined. It has the largest drainage basin in the world, about 7,050,000 square kilometres (2,720,000 sq mi). The Amazon accounts for about one-fifth of the world's total river flow.[1][2]

The sediment discharged by the gigantic mouth of the Amazon stains the sea brown for hundreds of miles out to sea.

When a glacier moves downhill,it pushes & pulls rocks with it. There is also another way. Cold weather causes water inside tiny cracks in rocks to freeze. When it freezes, the ice gets larger,& pushes hard against the rock to break it.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Erosie
العربية: تعرية
aragonés: Erosión
asturianu: Erosión
Avañe'ẽ: Yvysyry
azərbaycanca: Eroziya
Bân-lâm-gú: Chhim-si̍t
Basa Banyumasan: Erosi
беларуская: Эрозія (геалогія)
български: Ерозия
bosanski: Erozija
brezhoneg: Krignerezh
català: Erosió
čeština: Eroze
Cymraeg: Erydiad
dansk: Erosion
eesti: Erosioon
Ελληνικά: Αποσάθρωση
English: Erosion
español: Erosión
Esperanto: Erozio
euskara: Higadura
فارسی: فرسایش
français: Érosion
Gaeilge: Cnaí
galego: Erosión
한국어: 침식
հայերեն: Էրոզիա
हिन्दी: अपरदन
hrvatski: Erozija
Bahasa Indonesia: Erosi
íslenska: Rof
italiano: Erosione
עברית: סחיפה
ქართული: ეროზია
қазақша: Эрозия
Kiswahili: Mmomonyoko
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ewozyon
latviešu: Erozija
Lëtzebuergesch: Erosioun
lietuvių: Erozija
Limburgs: Erosie
македонски: Ерозија
Bahasa Melayu: Penghakisan
Nederlands: Erosie
日本語: 侵食
norsk: Erosjon
norsk nynorsk: Erosjon
occitan: Erosion
Patois: Iruojan
polski: Erozja
português: Erosão
română: Eroziune
Runa Simi: Allpa chinkari
Scots: Erosion
shqip: Abrazioni
slovenčina: Erózia
slovenščina: Erozija
српски / srpski: Ерозија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Erozija
suomi: Eroosio
svenska: Erosion
Tagalog: Erosyon
Türkçe: Erozyon
українська: Ерозія
Tiếng Việt: Xói mòn
Winaray: Pagtuno
中文: 侵蚀作用