Elephant

Elephants
Temporal range: Pliocene–Present
African Bush Elephant.jpg
A female African bush elephant in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania.
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Subphylum:Vertebrata
Class:Mammalia
Superorder:Afrotheria
Order:Proboscidea
Family:Elephantidae
Gray, 1821
Genera
The African elephant, Loxodonta africana, in Luanga National Park, Zambia

Elephants are the largest living land mammals.[1] The largest elephant recorded was one shot in Angola, 1974. It weighed 27,060 pounds (13.5 tons) and stood 13 feet 8 inches tall. Their skin colour is grey.

At birth, an elephant calf may weigh 100 kg (225 pounds). The baby elephant develops for 20 to 22 months inside its mother. No other land animal takes this long to develop before being born.

In the wild, elephants have strong family relationship. Their ways of acting toward other elephants are hard for people to understand. They "talk" to each other with very low sounds. Most elephants sounds are so low, people cannot hear them. But elephants can hear these sounds far away.[2] Elephants have strong, leathery skin to protect themselves.

Physical description

There are two living genera of elephants. These are African Loxodonta africanus, and Asian elephants Elephas maximus.

Trunk

An elephant's most obvious part is the trunk. The trunk is a very long nose, made from the upper lip. An elephant uses its trunk to grab objects such as food. Though the rest of an elephant's hide is strong and thick, its trunk is very soft and sensitive. Elephants avoid Acacia trees with symbiotic ants because they can bite the inside of an elephant's trunk.[3][4]

Teeth

Elephants also have tusks. Tusks are large teeth coming out of their upper jaws. A lot of ivory comes from elephant tusks. Ivory traders killed many elephants, so now hunting them is illegal. The trunk is also used when it trumpets. The elephant usually stands still, raises its trunk, and blows. This is a signal to other elephants and wildlife.

African elephants are larger and have bigger ears. They are grazers who still do quite a lot of browsing: they eat leaves, branches and grass. These big ears have many veins, which carry blood throughout the body. Biologists think that the blood going through their ears helps African elephants to cool off. The weather is hotter in Africa than in Asia, so it is hard for elephants to stay cool. Female African elephants have tusks, but female Asian elephants do not. African elephants have a low place in their back. African elephants have two "fingers" at the end of their trunks, but Asian elephants only have one. Indian elephants eat mainly grass.

Grass wears down their teeth because it has a high concentration of silica and is very abrasive.[5] Elephants use their teeth in sequence, not all at once. This means that, at any time, they only have one tooth in each jaw, a total of four.

In total, they have 24 teeth: 12 front teeth, called premolars, and 12 back teeth, called molars. When the last molar wears out, the elephant dies because it cannot eat. They can live for about 70 years. But in a zoo or circus, people can keep elephants alive by feeding them soft food.

Some African elephants live on the savanna while others live in the forest. Today, many people think these are different species. Scientists named the forest group Loxodonta cyclotis and the savanna group Loxodonta africanus.

Other Languages
Acèh: Gajah
Afrikaans: Olifant
Alemannisch: Elefant
አማርኛ: ዝሆን
العربية: فيل
aragonés: Elefant
armãneashti: Elefandu
asturianu: Elephantidae
Avañe'ẽ: Tapi'itĩmbuku
تۆرکجه: فیل
bamanankan: Sama
বাংলা: হাতি
Bahasa Banjar: Gajah
Bân-lâm-gú: Chhiūⁿ
башҡортса: Фил
беларуская: Слон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Слон
български: Слон
བོད་ཡིག: གླང་ཆེན།
bosanski: Slon
brezhoneg: Olifant
буряад: Заан
català: Elefants
čeština: Slon
chiShona: Nzou
corsu: Elefante
Cymraeg: Eliffant
dansk: Elefanter
eesti: Elevant
Ελληνικά: Ελέφαντας
English: Elephant
эрзянь: Пил
Esperanto: Elefanto
euskara: Elefante
eʋegbe: Atiglinyi
فارسی: فیل
Fiji Hindi: Haanthi
føroyskt: Fílur
français: Éléphant
Gaeilge: Eilifint
Gaelg: Elefant
Gagauz: Fillär
Gàidhlig: Ailbhean
galego: Elefante
贛語:
Gĩkũyũ: Njogu
ગુજરાતી: હાથી
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Siong
хальмг: Зан
한국어: 코끼리
Hausa: Giwa
հայերեն: Փղեր
हिन्दी: हाथी
Ilokano: Elepante
Bahasa Indonesia: Gajah
isiXhosa: Indlovu
isiZulu: Indlovu
íslenska: Fíll
עברית: פיל (שבט)
Basa Jawa: Gajah
kalaallisut: Nagguaatsoq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಆನೆ
ქართული: სპილოსებრნი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ہوٚس
қазақша: Пілдер
Kinyarwanda: Inzovu
Kiswahili: Ndovu
Kongo: Nzau
Kreyòl ayisyen: Elefan
kurdî: Fîl
Кыргызча: Пил
лакку: Пил
лезги: Фил
Latina: Elephantus
latviešu: Ziloņi
lietuvių: Drambliai
Ligure: Elefante
Limburgs: Olifante
lingála: Nzɔku
la .lojban.: xanto
македонски: Слон
മലയാളം: ആന
Malti: Iljunfant
मराठी: हत्ती
مصرى: فيل
Bahasa Melayu: Gajah
Baso Minangkabau: Gajah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chiông
монгол: Заан
Nāhuatl: Elefante
Dorerin Naoero: Elephant
Nederlands: Olifanten
नेपाली: हात्ती
नेपाल भाषा: किसि
日本語: ゾウ
norsk: Elefanter
norsk nynorsk: Elefant
Nouormand: Êléphant
occitan: Elefant
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହାତୀ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਾਥੀ
پنجابی: ہاتھی
Papiamentu: Olifanti
پښتو: پيل
Plattdüütsch: Elefant
português: Elefante
română: Elefant
русиньскый: Слон
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱦᱟᱹᱛᱤ
Gagana Samoa: Elefane
संस्कृतम्: गजः
Scots: Elephant
Sesotho: Tlou
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tlou
shqip: Elefanti
sicilianu: Liafanti
සිංහල: අලි
سنڌي: هاٿي
Soomaaliga: Maroodi
کوردی: فیل
српски / srpski: Slon
Basa Sunda: Gajah
suomi: Norsu
svenska: Elefant
Tagalog: Elepante
தமிழ்: யானை
татарча/tatarça: Фил
తెలుగు: ఏనుగు
ไทย: ช้าง
Tsetsêhestâhese: Tsêhe'êseeséhe
Tshivenda: Nḓou
ತುಳು: ಆನೆ
Türkçe: Fil
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Akɔ̈ɔ̈n
удмурт: Слон
українська: Слон
اردو: ہاتھی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پىل
Vahcuengh: Duzciengh
vepsän kel’: Elefant
Tiếng Việt: Voi
Volapük: Leefad
Võro: Elevant
文言:
West-Vlams: Olifant
Winaray: Elepante
Wolof: Ñay
吴语:
ייִדיש: העלפאנד
Yorùbá: Erin
粵語:
Zazaki: Fil
žemaitėška: Dromblīs
中文:
ГӀалгӀай: Пил