Earth
English: Earth

Earth Astronomical symbol of Earth
"The Blue Marble" photograph of Earth, taken by the Apollo 17 mission. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the upper half of the disc, whereas Antarctica is at the bottom.
The Blue Marble, the first full-view photograph of the planet, was taken by Apollo 17 astronauts in 1972
Designations
AdjectivesEarthly, terrestrial
Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000[1]
Aphelion152100000 km[2]
(94500000 mi; 1.017 AU)
Perihelion147095000 km[2]
(91401000 mi; 0.98327 AU)
149598023 km[3]
(92955902 mi; 1.00000102 AU)
Eccentricity0.0167086[3]
365.256363004 d[4]
(1.00001742096 yr)
29.78 km/s[5]
(107200 km/h; 66600 mph)
358.617°
Inclination
−11.26064°[5] to J2000 ecliptic
114.20783°[5]
Satellites
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
6371.0 km (3958.8 mi)[9]
Equatorial radius
6378.1 km (3963.2 mi)[10][11]
Polar radius
6356.8 km (3949.9 mi)[12]
Flattening0.0033528[13]
1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)
Circumference
  • 510072000 km2 (196940000 sq mi)[16][17][18]
  • 148940000 km2 land (57510000 sq mi; 29.2%)
  • 361132000 km2 water (139434000 sq mi; 70.8%)
Volume (2.59876×1011 cu mi)[5]
Mass5.97237×1024 kg (1.31668×1025 lb)[19]
(3.0×10−6 M)
Mean density
5.514 g/cm3 (0.1992 lb/cu in)[5]
9.807 m/s2 (g; 32.18 ft/s2)[20]
Moment of inertia factor
0.3307[21]
11.186 km/s[5]
(40270 km/h; 25020 mph)
0.99726968 d[22]
(23h 56m 4.100s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
0.4651 km/s[23]
(1674.4 km/h; 1040.4 mph)
23.4392811°[4]
Albedo
Surface temp.minmeanmax
Kelvin184 K[24]288 K[25]330 K[26]
Celsius−89.2 °C14.9 °C56.9 °C
Fahrenheit−128.5 °F58.7 °F134.3 °F
Atmosphere
Surface pressure
101.325 kPa (at MSL)
Composition by volume

Earth is the planet we live on. It is the third planet from the Sun. It is the only planet known to have life on it. The Earth formed around 4.5 billion years ago.[28][29] It is one of four rocky planets on the inside of the Solar System. The other three are Mercury, Venus and Mars.

The large mass of the Sun makes Earth move around it, just as the mass of Earth makes the moon move around it. Earth also turns around in space, so that different parts face the Sun at different times. Earth goes around the Sun once (one "year") for every 365​14 times it turns around (one "day").

Earth is the only planet in our solar system that has a large amount of liquid water.[30] About 74% of the surface of Earth is covered by liquid or frozen water. Because of this, people sometimes call it "blue planet".[31]

Because of its water, Earth is home to millions of species of plants and animals.[32][33] The things that live on Earth have changed its surface greatly. For example, early cyanobacteria changed the air and gave it oxygen. The living part of Earth's surface is called the "biosphere".[34]

Orbit and turning

Earth turns at an angle (an "axial tilt") in relation to its path around the Sun

Earth is part of the eight planets and many thousands of small bodies that move around the Sun as its solar system. The Solar System is moving through the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy now, and will be for about the next 10,000 years.[35][36]

Earth is about 150,000,000 kilometres or 93,000,000 miles away from the Sun (this distance is called an "Astronomical Unit"). It moves on its orbit at an average speed of about 30 km/s (19 mi/s).[37] Earth turns all the way around about 365​14 times in the time it takes for Earth to go all the way around the Sun.[4] To make up this extra bit of a day every year, an additional day is used every four years. This is named a "leap year".

The Moon goes around Earth at an average distance of 400,000 kilometres or 250,000 miles. It is locked to Earth, so that it always has the same half facing Earth; the other half is called the "dark side of the moon". It takes about 27​13 days for the Moon to go all the way around Earth, but because Earth is moving around the Sun at the same time, it takes about 29​12 days for the Moon to go from dark to bright to dark again. This is where the word "month" came from, even though most months now have 30 or 31 days.

Other Languages
Acèh: Bumoë
адыгабзэ: ЧIыгу
Afrikaans: Aarde
Alemannisch: Erde
አማርኛ: መሬት
Ænglisc: Eorðe
Аҧсшәа: Адгьыл
العربية: الأرض
aragonés: Tierra
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܪܥܐ
armãneashti: Locu
arpetan: Tèrra
অসমীয়া: পৃথিৱী
asturianu: Tierra
Atikamekw: Aski
Avañe'ẽ: Yvy
Aymar aru: Aka pacha
azərbaycanca: Yer
تۆرکجه: یئر
বাংলা: পৃথিবী
Bahasa Banjar: Bumi
Bân-lâm-gú: Tē-kiû
Basa Banyumasan: Bumi
башҡортса: Ер
беларуская: Зямля (планета)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Зямля
भोजपुरी: पृथ्वी
Bikol Central: Kinaban
български: Земя
Boarisch: Eadn
བོད་ཡིག: སའི་གོ་ལ།
буряад: Дэлхэй
català: Terra
Чӑвашла: Çĕр (планета)
čeština: Země
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Tierra
chiShona: Rinopasi
Cymraeg: Y Ddaear
dansk: Jorden
davvisámegiella: Eana
Deutsch: Erde
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބިން
Diné bizaad: Nahasdzáán
dolnoserbski: Zemja
डोटेली: पृथ्वी
eesti: Maa
Ελληνικά: Γη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tèra
English: Earth
español: Tierra
Esperanto: Tero
estremeñu: Tierra
euskara: Lurra
فارسی: زمین
Fiji Hindi: Dunia
føroyskt: Jørðin
français: Terre
Frysk: Ierde
furlan: Tiere
Gaeilge: An Domhan
Gaelg: Yn Dowan
galego: Terra
ГӀалгӀай: Лаьтта
贛語: 地球
Gĩkũyũ: Thĩ
ગુજરાતી: પૃથ્વી
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌸𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: धर्तरी
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thi-khiù
хальмг: Делкә һариг
한국어: 지구
Hausa: Duniya
Hawaiʻi: Honua
հայերեն: Երկիր
Արեւմտահայերէն: Երկիր
हिन्दी: पृथ्वी
hornjoserbsce: Zemja
hrvatski: Zemlja
Ido: Tero
Igbo: Àlà
Bahasa Indonesia: Bumi
interlingua: Terra
Interlingue: Terra
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓄᓇ
Ирон: Зæхх
isiZulu: Umhlaba
íslenska: Jörðin
italiano: Terra
עברית: כדור הארץ
Jawa: Bumi
Kabɩyɛ: Tɛtʋ
kalaallisut: Nunarsuaq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಭೂಮಿ
Kapampangan: Yatu
къарачай-малкъар: Джер
ქართული: დედამიწა
kaszëbsczi: Zemia
қазақша: Жер
kernowek: Dor
Kinyarwanda: Isi
Kiswahili: Dunia
коми: Му
Kongo: Ntoto
Kreyòl ayisyen: Latè
kurdî: Erd
Кыргызча: Жер
кырык мары: Мӱлӓндӹ (планета)
Ladino: Tierra
ລາວ: ໂລກ
لۊری شومالی: جأهوٙن
latgaļu: Zeme
latviešu: Zeme
Lëtzebuergesch: Äerd
lietuvių: Žemė
Ligure: Tæra
Limburgs: Eerd
lingála: Mabelé
Lingua Franca Nova: Tera
la .lojban.: terdi
Luganda: Ensi
lumbaart: Tera
magyar: Föld
मैथिली: पृथ्वी
македонски: Земја (планета)
Malagasy: Tany
മലയാളം: ഭൂമി
Malti: Id-Dinja
Māori: Whenua
मराठी: पृथ्वी
მარგალური: დიხაუჩა
مصرى: الارض
مازِرونی: زمین
Bahasa Melayu: Bumi
Minangkabau: Bumi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dê-giù
Mirandés: Tierra
монгол: Дэлхий
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကမ္ဘာဂြိုဟ်
Nāhuatl: Tlalticpactli
Dorerin Naoero: Eb
Nederlands: Aarde (planeet)
Nedersaksies: Eerde
नेपाली: पृथ्वी
नेपाल भाषा: प्रिथिबी
日本語: 地球
Napulitano: Terra
нохчийн: Дуьне
Nordfriisk: Jard
Norfuk / Pitkern: Erth
norsk: Jorden
norsk nynorsk: Jorda
Nouormand: Tèrre
Novial: Tere
occitan: Tèrra
олык марий: Мланде (планет)
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ପୃଥିବୀ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yer
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਧਰਤੀ
Pälzisch: Erde
پنجابی: زمین
Papiamentu: Tera
پښتو: ځمکه
Patois: Oert
Перем Коми: Мушар
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ផែនដី
Picard: Tière
Piemontèis: Tèra (pianeta)
Tok Pisin: Giraun
Plattdüütsch: Eer
polski: Ziemia
português: Terra
Qaraqalpaqsha: Jer
qırımtatarca: Dünya
Ripoarisch: Ääd (Planeet)
română: Pământ
romani čhib: Phuv
rumantsch: Terra
Runa Simi: Tiksimuyu
русиньскый: Земля (планета)
русский: Земля
саха тыла: Сир
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱨᱛᱤ
संस्कृतम्: पृथ्वी
sardu: Terra
Scots: Yird
Seeltersk: Äide
Sesotho: Lefatshe
Sesotho sa Leboa: Lefase
shqip: Toka
sicilianu: Terra (pianeta)
සිංහල: මහ පොළොව
سنڌي: زمين
slovenčina: Zem
slovenščina: Zemlja
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Ꙁємлꙗ
ślůnski: Źymja
Soomaaliga: Dhul
کوردی: زەوی
српски / srpski: Земља
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Zemlja
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : Earth
Basa Sunda: Marcapada
suomi: Maa
svenska: Jorden
Tagalog: Daigdig
தமிழ்: புவி
Taqbaylit: Tagnit (amtiweg)
татарча/tatarça: Җир
తెలుగు: భూమి
tetun: Rai
тоҷикӣ: Замин
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎡᎶᎯ
ತುಳು: ಭೂಮಿ
Türkçe: Dünya
Türkmençe: Ýer
тыва дыл: Чер
удмурт: Музъем
українська: Земля
اردو: زمین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يەر شارى
Vahcuengh: Giuznamh
vèneto: Tera
vepsän kel’: Ma
Tiếng Việt: Trái Đất
Volapük: Tal
walon: Daegne
文言: 坤輿
West-Vlams: Eirde (planete)
Winaray: Kalibotan
Wolof: Suuf
吴语: 地球
Xitsonga: Misava
ייִדיש: ערד-פלאנעט
Yorùbá: Ayé
粵語: 地球
Zazaki: Dınya
Zeêuws: Aerde
žemaitėška: Žemė
中文: 地球