After the Congress of Vienna in 1815 Saxony had to give a lot of its land to Prussia, including the region of Delitzsch. The Prussian government made the district of Delitzsch.
Prussia was dissolved after the end of the Nazi era. Delitzsch was made a part of the new state of Saxony-Anhalt. In 1953 the East German government dissolved the states. After the German reunification in 1990, the states were made again, but now Delitzsch and Eilenburg (two districts made of the former Delitzsch district) were given to Saxony instead of Saxony-Anhalt. The two districts were joined in 1994 and gave the district in its present borders. In 2008 Delitzsch Rural district was merged with Torgau-Oschatz Rural District to Nordsachsen Rural District.