Chile
English: Chile

Republic of Chile

República de Chile  (Spanish)
Motto: Por la razón o la fuerza
"By reason or by force" (in Spanish)[1]
Anthem: Himno Nacional de Chile (in Spanish)
CHL orthographic.svg
Capital
and largest city
Santiago1
Official languagesSpanish
Demonym(s)Chilean
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
Sebastián Piñera
• Minister of the Interior and Public Security
Andrés Chadwick (UDI)
• President of the Senate
Carlos Montes (PS)
• President of the Chamber of Deputies
Maya Fernández (PS)
• President of the Supreme Court
Haroldo Brito Cruz
Independence 
from Spain
• 

September 18, 1810
• Declared
February 12, 1818
• Recognized
April 25, 1844
• Current constitution

September 11, 1980
Area
• Total
756,950 km2 (292,260 sq mi) (38th)
• Water (%)
1.07²
Population
• 2011 estimate
16,888,760 (60th)
• 2002 census
15,116,435
• Density
22/km2 (57.0/sq mi) (194th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$281,368 billion[2]
• Per capita
$16,172[2]
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$243,049 billion[2]
• Per capita
$13,970[2]
Gini (2006)52.0[3]
high
HDI (2012)Increase 0.819[4]
very high · 40th
CurrencyPeso (CLP)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −6 (CLT or EAST 3)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−3 to −5 (CLST or EASST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+56
ISO 3166 codeCL
Internet TLD.cl
  1. The legislature is based in Valparaíso
  2. Includes Easter Island and Isla Sala y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica
  3. The mainland uses UTC−4 (in summer: UTC−3) ; Easter Island uses UTC−6 (in summer: UTC−5).

Chile (officially called Republic of Chile) is a country on the south-western side of South America. Most people there speak Spanish.

Chile, which claims a part of the Antarctic continent, is the longest country on earth. The Atacama Desert, in the north of the country, is the driest place on earth. The average rainfall there is less than 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) per year. The center of Chile, with the two cities Santiago and Valparaíso, has a Mediterranean climate with an average temperatures of 28 °C (82 °F) in January and 11 °C (52 °F) in July. In the middle of Chile, the country is very good for growing things.

There are about 16.9 million people living in Chile in 2009. About 10 million people live in the center of Chile around Valparaíso and Santiago, on about 20% of the total land.

Chile is a well-educated country. Only 2.7% are not able to read or write. Some believe that Chile has one of the best school systems in South America.

About 95% of Chileans are people with a combination of European descent, mostly Spanish, but also German, English, Italian and Arab people. Around 2% of the population is Native American, but most people have native ancestors. Immigrants are 7% of the population. including Peruvians, Bolivians, Colombians, Haitians, Chinese and Europeans. The majority of people are Roman Catholic (62.8%) but many don't go to church. About 10% are Protestant, and there are some Jews and Muslims as well. The country's official language is Spanish. Chili peppers, first cultivated by Native Americans from other Latin American countries and the United States, did not come from this country, although it has a similar name.

Chile's currency is the Chilean peso.

Geography

Parinacota volcano in northern Chile

Chile borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. It is over 4,630 kilometres (2,880 mi) north to south, but only 430 kilometres (270 mi) at its widest point east to west.

The northern Atacama Desert has great mineral wealth, mostly copper and nitrates. Chile is the largest producer of copper.[5] The Andes Mountains are on the eastern border.

Chile controls Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island, the easternmost islands of Polynesia.

Animals and plants

A glacier at Beagle Channel in southern Chile
Juan Fernández Firecrown

Animals

Only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found in Chile. Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found.

There are many species of small birds, but not most of the larger common Latin American types. Few freshwater fish are from Chile, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes. The coast of Chile is close to the Humboldt Current, so ocean waters have many fish and other forms of marine life. This in turn supports a rich variety of waterfowl, including several penguins. There are many whales, and six species of seals in the area.

Fungi

Just over 3,000 species of fungi are recorded in Chile.[6][7] This number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species in Chile is likely to be far higher. The generally accepted estimate is that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.[8]

Plants

The northernmost coastal and central region is largely empty of vegetation. It is the most close to an absolute desert in the world. On the slopes of the Andes, besides the scattered tola desert brush, grasses are found. The central valley has several species of cacti, the hardy espinos (a kind of acacia tree), the Chilean pine, the southern beeches and the copihue, a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower.

In southern Chile, south of the Biobío River lots of rain has made dense forests of laurels, magnolias, and various species of conifers and beeches, which become smaller and more stunted to the south.[9]

The cold temperatures and winds of the extreme south make it impossible for heavy forestation. Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile (in Patagonia).

Much of the Chilean plant life is different from that of neighboring Argentina. This shows that the Andean barrier existed during the formation of Chile.[9]

Regions

Chile is divided into 16 regions. The regions are then divided into provinces. Each province is divided into communes.[10]

FlagName
(English/Spanish)
CapitalArea (km2)Population
(2017 census)
Flag of Arica y Parinacota, Chile.svgArica and Parinacota
Región de Arica y Parinacota
Arica16,873.3226,068
Flag of Tarapaca, Chile.svgTarapacá
Región de Tarapacá
Iquique42,225.8330,558
Flag of Antofagasta Region, Chile.svgAntofagasta
Región de Antofagasta
Antofagasta126,049.1607,534
Flag of Atacama, Chile.svgAtacama
Región de Atacama
Copiapó75,176.2286,168
Flag of Coquimbo Region, Chile.svgCoquimbo
Región de Coquimbo
La Serena40,579.9757,586
Flag of Valparaiso Region, Chile.svgValparaíso
Región de Valparaíso
Valparaíso16,396.11,815,902
Flag of the Metropolitan Region, Chile.svgSantiago
Región Metropolitana de Santiago
Santiago15,403.27,112,808
Flag of O'Higgins Region, Chile.svgO'Higgins
Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins
Rancagua16,387.0914,555
Flag of Maule, Chile.svgMaule
Región del Maule
Talca30,296.11,044,950
Flag of Ñuble Region, Chile.svgÑuble
Región de Ñuble
Chillán13,178.5480,609
Flag of Biobío Region, Chile.svgBiobío
Región del Biobío
Concepción23,890.21,556,805
Flag of La Araucania, Chile.svgAraucanía
Región de La Araucanía
Temuco31,842.3957,224
Flag of Los Ríos, Chile.svgLos Ríos
Región de Los Ríos
Valdivia18,429.5384,837
Flag of Los Lagos Region, Chile.svgLos Lagos
Región de Los Lagos
Puerto Montt48,583.6828,708
Flag of Aysen, Chile.svgAysén
Región Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
Coihaique108,494.4103,158
Flag of Magallanes, Chile.svgMagallanes
Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena
Punta Arenas132,291.1166,533

Literature

Chileans call their country país de poetas-country of poets.[11] Gabriela Mistral was the first Latin American to receive a Nobel Prize for Literature (1945). Chile's most famous poet, however, is Pablo Neruda. He also received the Nobel Prize for Literature (1971).

Among the list of other Chilean poets are Lily Garafulic, Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Simonetti, and Paulo Coloane. Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide.[12] Novelist José Donoso's novel The Obscene Bird of the Night is said by critic Harold Bloom to be one of the important works of 20th century Western literature. Another internationally recognized Chilean novelist is Roberto Bolaño. His translations into English have had an excellent reception from the critics.[13][14][15]

Food and drink

Chilean Cazuela and assorted salads.

Chilean food shows the differences in the land across the country. There is an assortment of seafood, beef, fruits, and vegetables. Traditional recipes include asado, cazuela, empanadas, humitas, pastel de choclo, pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.[16]

Crudos is an example of the mixture of culinary additions from the various ethnic groups in Chile. Onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer.

Sports

Estadio Nacional de Chile

Chile's most popular sport is association football. Chile has been in eight FIFA World Cups which includes hosting the 1962 FIFA World Cup. Other results by the national football team include four finals at the Copa América, one silver and two bronze medals at the Pan American Games, a bronze medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics and two third places finishes in the FIFA under-17 and under-20 youth tournaments. The top league in the Chilean football league system is the Chilean Primera División. It was named by the IFFHS in 2011 as the ninth strongest national football league in the world.[17]

Chile, the current world champion polo team, with President Michelle Bachelet and the trophy of the 2008 World Polo Championship.

Tennis is Chile's most successful sport. Its national team won the World Team Cup clay tournament twice (2003 & 2004). They played the Davis Cup final against Italy in 1976. At the 2004 Summer Olympics the country took gold and bronze in men's singles and gold in men's doubles. Marcelo Ríos became the first Latin American man to reach the number one spot in the ATP singles rankings in 1998. Anita Lizana won the US Open in 1937. She was the first woman from Latin America to win a grand slam tournament. Luis Ayala was twice a runner-up at the French Open and both Ríos, Nicolas Massu Friedt and Fernando González Ciuffardi reached the Australian Open men's singles finals. González also won a silver medal in singles at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

At the Summer Olympic Games Chile has a total of two gold medals (tennis), seven silver medals (athletics, equestrian, boxing, shooting and tennis) and four bronze medals (tennis, boxing and football). In 2012 Chile won its first Paralympic Games medal (gold in Athletics).

Rodeo is the country's national sport. It is practiced in the more rural areas of the country. A sport similar to hockey. Skiing and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers in the Central Andes. Surfing is popular at some coastal towns. Polo is professionally practiced in Chile. In 2008 Chile won top prize in the World Polo Championship.

Basketball is a popular sport. Chile earned a bronze medal in the first men's FIBA World Championship held in 1950. They won a second bronze medal when Chile hosted the 1959 FIBA World Championship. Chile hosted the first FIBA World Championship for Women in 1953 finishing the tournament with the silver medal. Other sports such as marathons and ultramarathons are also increasing in popularity. San Pedro de Atacama is host to the yearly "Atacama Crossing," a six-stage, 250-kilometer footrace which has about 150 competitors from 35 countries each year. The Dakar Rally off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile and Argentina since 2009.

Immigration to Chile

A few European immigrants settled in Chile during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, mainly from Spain. The general picture is as follows:

YearTotal populationImmigrant population  Source:[18]
Total%EuropeansLatin AmericansOthers
18651.819.22321.9821,21%53,7%41,4%4,9%
18752.075.97125.1991,21%62,3%33,0%4,7%
18852.057.00587.0774,23%30,1%67,2%2,7%
19073.249.279134.5244,5%53,3%42,7%4,0%
19203.731.593114.1143,06%60,0%31,2%8,9%
19304.287.445105.4632,46%60,0%24,6%15,4%
19405.023.539107.2732,14%67,2%21,7%11,1%
19525.932.995103.8781,75%55,9%23,4%20,7%
19607.374.115104.8531,42%60,9%26,1%13,0%
19708.884.76890.4411,02%53,3%34,4%12,3%
198211.275.44084.3450,75%31,8%54,5%13,7%
199213.348.401114.5970,86%20,1%65,1%14,8%
200215.116.435184.4641,22%17,2%71,8%11,0%

National symbols

The Andean Condor is the national bird of Chile

The national flower is the copihue (Lapageria rosea, Chilean bellflower), which grows in the woods of southern Chile.

The coat of arms shows the two national animals: the condor (Vultur gryphus, a very large bird that lives in the mountains) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer). It also has the saying Por la razón o la fuerza (By reason or by force).

The flag of Chile has two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red. There is a blue square the same height as the white band. The square has a white five-pointed star in the center. The star is a guide to progress and honor. Blue is for the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to get independence.

Gallery

Related pages

References

  1. "Chilean Government". The Coat of Arms. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Chile". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  3. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  4. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  5. "Chile's Copper Giant Codelco to Trim 2015 Refined Supply". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  6. Oehrens, E.B. "Flora Fungosa Chilena". Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile, 1980
  7. "Cybertruffle's Robigalia – Observations of fungi and their associated organisms". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  8. Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., Minter, D.W. and Stalpers, J. "Dictionary of the Fungi". Edn 10. CABI, 2008
  9. 9.0 9.1 Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia (August, 2007). "Distribution patterns of flora and fauna in southern Chilean Coastal rain forests: Integrating Natural History and GIS" (PDF). Biodiversity and Conservation. Springer Netherlands. 16 (9). doi:10.1007/s10531-006-9073-2. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. "Organigrama". Gobierno de Chile.
  11. "UN MAPA POR COMPLETAR: LA JOVEN POESIA CHILENA – żPor qué tanta y tan variada poesía?". Uchile.cl. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
  12. "Latin American Herald Tribune – Isabel Allende Named to Council of Cervantes Institute". Laht.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  13. Grossman, Lev (10 November 2008). "Bolaño's 2666: The Best Book of 2008". Time. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  14. Sarah Kerr (18 December 2008). "The Triumph of Roberto Bolaño | The New York Review of Books". Nybooks.com.
  15. Wood, James (15 April 2007). "The Visceral Realist". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  16. Kijac, Maria Baez (2003). The South American Table: The Flavor and Soul of Authentic Home Cooking from Patagonia to Rio de Janeiro, with 450 Recipes. Harvard Common Press. ISBN 978-1-55832-249-3.
  17. "The strongest National League in the World 2011". IFFHS. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  18. Doña-Reveco, Cristián & Levinson, Amanda 2012. Chile: a growing destination country in search of a coherent approach to migration. MPI. [1]
Other Languages
Acèh: Chili
Адыгэбзэ: Чили
адыгабзэ: Чили
Afrikaans: Chili
Akan: Chile
Alemannisch: Chile
አማርኛ: ቺሌ
Ænglisc: Cile
Аҧсшәа: Чили
العربية: تشيلي
aragonés: Chile
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܬܫܝܠܝ
armãneashti: Cile
arpetan: Ch·ili
অসমীয়া: চিলি
asturianu: Chile
Avañe'ẽ: Chíle
авар: Чили
Aymar aru: Chili
azərbaycanca: Çili
تۆرکجه: شیلی
bamanankan: Chile
বাংলা: চিলি
Banjar: Cili
Bân-lâm-gú: Chile
Basa Banyumasan: Chile
башҡортса: Чили
беларуская: Чылі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чылі
भोजपुरी: चिली
Bikol Central: Tsile
Bislama: Chile
български: Чили
Boarisch: Chile
བོད་ཡིག: ཅི་ལི།
bosanski: Čile
brezhoneg: Chile
буряад: Чили
català: Xile
Чӑвашла: Чили
Cebuano: Tśile
čeština: Chile
Chamoru: Chile
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Chile
Chi-Chewa: Chile
chiShona: Chile
chiTumbuka: Chile
corsu: Cile
Cymraeg: Tsile
dansk: Chile
davvisámegiella: Chile
Deitsch: Chile
Deutsch: Chile
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޗިލީ
dolnoserbski: Chilska
डोटेली: चिली
ཇོང་ཁ: ཅི་ལེ
eesti: Tšiili
Ελληνικά: Χιλή
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cîl
English: Chile
эрзянь: Чили Мастор
español: Chile
Esperanto: Ĉilio
estremeñu: Chili
euskara: Txile
eʋegbe: Chile
فارسی: شیلی
Fiji Hindi: Chile
føroyskt: Kili
français: Chili
Frysk: Sily
Fulfulde: Ciile
furlan: Cile
Gaeilge: An tSile
Gagauz: Çili
Gàidhlig: An t-Sile
galego: Chile
贛語: 智利
Gĩkũyũ: Chile
گیلکی: شيلي
ગુજરાતી: ચીલી
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍄𐍃𐌾𐌹𐌻𐌴𐌹
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: चिली
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chile
한국어: 칠레
Hausa: Chile
Hawaiʻi: Kile
հայերեն: Չիլի
हिन्दी: चिली
hornjoserbsce: Chilska
hrvatski: Čile
Ido: Chili
Igbo: Chile
Ilokano: Chile
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: চিলি
Bahasa Indonesia: Chili
interlingua: Chile
Interlingue: Chile
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᓕ
Iñupiak: Cili
Ирон: Чили
isiXhosa: IChile
isiZulu: ITshile
íslenska: Síle
italiano: Cile
עברית: צ'ילה
Jawa: Cilé
Kabɩyɛ: Silii
kalaallisut: Chile
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಚಿಲಿ
Kapampangan: Chile
къарачай-малкъар: Чили
ქართული: ჩილე
kaszëbsczi: Chile
қазақша: Чили
kernowek: Chile
Kinyarwanda: Shili
Kirundi: Chili
Kiswahili: Chile
коми: Чили
Kongo: Chile
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chili
kriyòl gwiyannen: Chili
kurdî: Şîle
Кыргызча: Чили
кырык мары: Чили
Ladino: Chile
лакку: Чилй
لۊری شومالی: شیلی
latgaļu: Čile
Latina: Chilia
latviešu: Čīle
Lëtzebuergesch: Chile
лезги: Чили
lietuvių: Čilė
Ligure: Cile
Limburgs: Chili
lingála: Shíle
Lingua Franca Nova: Txile
Livvinkarjala: Čili
la .lojban.: tciles
Luganda: Chile
lumbaart: Cile
magyar: Chile
मैथिली: चिली
македонски: Чиле
Malagasy: Silia
മലയാളം: ചിലി
Malti: Ċili
Māori: Hiri
मराठी: चिली
მარგალური: ჩილე
مصرى: تشيلى
مازِرونی: شیلی
Bahasa Melayu: Chile
Minangkabau: Chili
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chile
Mirandés: Chile
мокшень: Чиле
монгол: Чили
Nāhuatl: Chile
Dorerin Naoero: Tsire
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Chile
Nederlands: Chili
Nedersaksies: Chili
नेपाली: चिली
नेपाल भाषा: चिली
日本語: チリ
Napulitano: Cile
нохчийн: Чили
Nordfriisk: Chiile
Norfuk / Pitkern: Chili
norsk: Chile
norsk nynorsk: Chile
Nouormand: Chili
Novial: Chile
occitan: Chile
олык марий: Чили
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚିଲି
Oromoo: Chiilii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚਿਲੀ
पालि: चिले
Pälzisch: Chile
Pangasinan: Chile
پنجابی: چلی
Papiamentu: Chile
پښتو: چیلی
Patois: Chili
Перем Коми: Чили
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឈីលី
Picard: Kili
Piemontèis: Cile
Tok Pisin: Sili
Plattdüütsch: Chile
polski: Chile
Ποντιακά: Χιλε
português: Chile
Qaraqalpaqsha: Chili
qırımtatarca: Çile
reo tahiti: Tīri
Ripoarisch: Chile
română: Chile
romani čhib: Chile
rumantsch: Chile
Runa Simi: Chili
русиньскый: Чіле
русский: Чили
саха тыла: Чиили
Sakizaya: Chile
Gagana Samoa: Shili
संस्कृतम्: चिलि
Sängö: Shilïi
sardu: Cile
Scots: Chile
Seeltersk: Chile
Sesotho: Chile
Sesotho sa Leboa: Chile
Setswana: Chile
shqip: Kili
sicilianu: Cili
سنڌي: چلي
SiSwati: IShile
slovenčina: Čile
slovenščina: Čile
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Чилє
ślůnski: Czile
Soomaaliga: Jili
کوردی: چیلی
Sranantongo: Sili
српски / srpski: Чиле
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Čile
Sunda: Cilé
suomi: Chile
svenska: Chile
Tagalog: Chile
தமிழ்: சிலி
Taqbaylit: Cili
tarandíne: Cile
татарча/tatarça: Чили
తెలుగు: చిలీ
tetun: Xile
ትግርኛ: ቺሌ
тоҷикӣ: Чили
lea faka-Tonga: Sile
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏥᎵ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Chile
Tshivenda: Shile
ತುಳು: ಚಿಲಿ
Türkçe: Şili
Türkmençe: Çili
Twi: Kyili
тыва дыл: Чили
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Cile
удмурт: Чили
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Chili
українська: Чилі
اردو: چلی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: چىلى
Vahcuengh: Chile
vèneto: Ciłe
vepsän kel’: Čili
Tiếng Việt: Chile
Volapük: Cilän
Võro: Tsiili
walon: Tchili
文言: 智利
West-Vlams: Chili
Winaray: Chile
Wolof: Sili
吴语: 智利
Xitsonga: Chile
ייִדיש: טשילע
Yorùbá: Tsílè
粵語: 智利
Zazaki: Şili
Zeêuws: Chili
žemaitėška: Čilė
中文: 智利