Chess

A chess set in the array, or starting position.
In a competitive game, a clock is used. Each player has an equal overall time for the game, and decides how best to use the time given.
This is a modern digital clock
Libro de los juegos, Alfonso X of Castile, showing Muslim playing Christian.

Chess is a board game for two players.[1] It is played in a square board, made of 64 smaller squares, with eight squares on each side. Each player starts with sixteen pieces: eight pawns, two knights, two bishops, two rooks, one queen and one king.[2] The goal of the game is for each player to try and checkmate the king of the opponent. Checkmate is a threat ('check') to the opposing king which no move can stop. It ends the game.[3][4]

During the game the two opponents take turns to move one of their pieces to a different square of the board. One player ('White') has pieces of a light color; the other player ('Black') has pieces of a dark color. There are rules about how pieces move, and about taking the opponent's pieces off the board. The player with white pieces always makes the first move.[4] Because of this, White has a small advantage, and wins more often than Black in tournament games.[5][6]

Chess is popular and is often played in competitions called chess tournaments. It is enjoyed in many countries, and is a national hobby in Russia.[7]

History

A king from the Isle of Lewis chessmen (c12th C. British Museum)

Most historians agree that the game of chess was first played in northern India during the Gupta Empire in the 6th century AD.[8][9] This early type of chess was known as Chaturanga, a Sanskrit word for the military. The Gupta chess pieces were divided like their military into the infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots. In time, these pieces became the pawn, knight, bishop, and rook. The English words chess and check both come from the Persian word shāh meaning king.[8]

The earliest written evidence of chess is found in three romances (epic stories) written in Sassanid Persia around 600AD. The game was known as chatrang or shatranj. When Persia was taken over by Muslims (633–644) the game was spread to all parts of the Muslim world. Muslim traders carried the game to Russia and to Western Europe. By the year 1000 it had spread all over Europe. In the 13th century a Spanish manuscript called Libro de los Juegos describes the games of shatranj (chess), backgammon, and dice.[10]

The game changed greatly between about 1470 to 1495. The rules of the older game were changed in the West so that some of the pieces (queen, bishop) had more scope, development of the pieces was faster, and the game more exciting. The new game formed the basis of modern international chess. Historians of chess consider this as the most important change since the game was invented.[8][11]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Skaak
Alemannisch: Schach
አማርኛ: ሰንጠረዥ
Ænglisc: Blēobord
العربية: شطرنج
aragonés: Escaques
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܛܠܦܣܢܐ
asturianu: Axedrez
azərbaycanca: Şahmat
تۆرکجه: شطرنج
বাংলা: দাবা
Bahasa Banjar: Catur
Bân-lâm-gú: Kok-chè chhiūⁿ-kî
башҡортса: Шахмат
беларуская: Шахматы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Шахматы
भोजपुरी: शतरंज
български: Шахмат
Boarisch: Schach
bosanski: Šah
brezhoneg: Echedoù
буряад: Шатар
català: Escacs
Чӑвашла: Шахмат
čeština: Šachy
Cymraeg: Gwyddbwyll
dansk: Skak
davvisámegiella: Šáhkka
Deutsch: Schach
ދިވެހިބަސް: ރާޒުވާ
dolnoserbski: Šach
eesti: Male
Ελληνικά: Σκάκι
English: Chess
español: Ajedrez
Esperanto: Ŝako
euskara: Xake
فارسی: شطرنج
Fiji Hindi: Satranj
føroyskt: Talv
français: Échecs
Frysk: Skaken
Gaeilge: Ficheall
Gàidhlig: Tàileasg
galego: Xadrez
贛語: 國際象棋
ગુજરાતી: ચેસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sî-yòng-khî
хальмг: Шатр
한국어: 체스
Հայերեն: Շախմատ
हिन्दी: शतरंज
hornjoserbsce: Šach
hrvatski: Šah
Ilokano: Ahedres
Bahasa Indonesia: Catur
interlingua: Chacos
Interlingue: Chac
isiXhosa: Itshesi
íslenska: Skák
italiano: Scacchi
עברית: שחמט
Basa Jawa: Sekak
ქართული: ჭადრაკი
қазақша: Шахмат
Kiswahili: Sataranji
Kreyòl ayisyen: Echèk (jwèt)
kurdî: Sedrenc
Кыргызча: Шахмат
лезги: Шахматар
Latina: Scacci
latviešu: Šahs
Lëtzebuergesch: Schach
lietuvių: Šachmatai
Limburgs: Sjaaksjpèl
Livvinkarjala: Šahmuattukiža
la .lojban.: caxmati
magyar: Sakk
मैथिली: शतरञ्ज
македонски: Шах
Malagasy: Eseky
മലയാളം: ചെസ്സ്
मराठी: बुद्धिबळ
მარგალური: ჭარდაკი
مصرى: شطرنج
Bahasa Melayu: Catur
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Guók-cié chiông-gì
Mirandés: Xadreç
монгол: Шатар
Nāhuatl: Cuappatōlli
Nederlands: Schaken
Nedersaksies: Skaakn
नेपाली: बुद्धिचाल
नेपाल भाषा: चेस
日本語: チェス
нохчийн: Шахматаш
Nordfriisk: Schach
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ches
norsk: Sjakk
norsk nynorsk: Sjakk
occitan: Escacs
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚେସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shaxmat
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਤਰੰਜ
پنجابی: شطرنج
پښتو: سترنج
Patois: Ches
Plattdüütsch: Schachspeel
polski: Szachy
português: Xadrez
română: Șah (joc)
Runa Simi: Qhapaq chunkana
русиньскый: Шахы
русский: Шахматы
саха тыла: Саахымат
संस्कृतम्: चतुरङ्गक्रीडा
Scots: Chess
Sesotho sa Leboa: Moruba wa sekgowa
shqip: Shahu
sicilianu: Scacchi
සිංහල: චෙස්
slovenčina: Šach (hra)
slovenščina: Šah
کوردی: شەتڕەنج
српски / srpski: Шах
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Šah
Basa Sunda: Catur
suomi: Shakki
svenska: Schack
Tagalog: Ahedres
татарча/tatarça: Шахмат
తెలుగు: చదరంగం (ఆట)
тоҷикӣ: Шоҳмот
Türkçe: Satranç
Türkmençe: Küşt
українська: Шахи
اردو: شطرنج
vèneto: Scachi
vepsän kel’: Šahmatad
Tiếng Việt: Cờ vua
Volapük: Cög
Võro: Malõ
Winaray: Chess
吴语: 国际象棋
ייִדיש: שאך (שפיל)
粵語: 國際象棋
žemaitėška: Šakmatā
中文: 國際象棋