Carbohydrate

A diagram of the structure of fructose

Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain only oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. They are made up of joined-up sugars. Sugars have the general formula Cm(H2O)n, and are also known as saccharides.

Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals.

Biochemistry

There are four types of carbohydrates, named by the number of sugar molecules they contain.

  1. Simple saccharides with one or two sugar molecules
    1. Monosaccharides: single sugar e.g. glucose , fructose
    2. Disaccharides: two saccharides. e.g. sucrose, lactose
  2. Longer chain saccharides:
    1. Oligosaccharides (shortish chains), often linked to amino acids or lipids. They play a special role in cell membranes.
    2. Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. Their function is either energy storage (starch, glycogen) or building structures (cellulose, chitin).
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Koolhidraat
Alemannisch: Kohlenhydrate
العربية: سكريات
অসমীয়া: শৰ্কৰা
asturianu: Glúcido
azərbaycanca: Karbohidratlar
বাংলা: শর্করা
башҡортса: Углеводтар
беларуская: Вугляводы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вугляводы
български: Въглехидрат
bosanski: Ugljikohidrati
català: Glúcid
čeština: Sacharidy
chiShona: Carbohydrates
Cymraeg: Carbohydrad
dansk: Kulhydrat
Deutsch: Kohlenhydrate
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކާބޯހައިޑްރޭޓް
Ελληνικά: Υδατάνθρακες
English: Carbohydrate
español: Glúcido
Esperanto: Karbonhidrato
estremeñu: Glúcidu
Fiji Hindi: Carbohydrate
français: Glucide
Gàidhlig: Gualuisg
galego: Carbohidrato
한국어: 탄수화물
հայերեն: Ածխաջուր
hrvatski: Ugljikohidrati
Ilokano: Karbohidrato
Bahasa Indonesia: Karbohidrat
interlingua: Carbohydrato
íslenska: Sykra
italiano: Glucidi
עברית: פחמימה
Basa Jawa: Karbohidrat
қазақша: Көмірсулар
Kiswahili: Hidrati kabonia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kabonidrat
kurdî: Karbohîdrat
Кыргызча: Көмүрсуу
latviešu: Ogļhidrāti
Lëtzebuergesch: Kuelenhydrat
lietuvių: Angliavandeniai
lumbaart: Carbuidraa
magyar: Szénhidrát
македонски: Јаглехидрат
მარგალური: ნოშქერწყარეფი
Bahasa Melayu: Karbohidrat
монгол: Нүүрс ус
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကာဘိုဟိုက်ဒရိတ်
Nederlands: Koolhydraat
नेपाल भाषा: शर्करा
日本語: 炭水化物
Nordfriisk: Köölhüdraaten
norsk nynorsk: Karbohydrat
occitan: Glucid
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଶ୍ୱେତସାର
Oromoo: Carbohydrate
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Uglevodlar
polski: Węglowodany
português: Carboidrato
română: Glucidă
Runa Simi: K'illimsayaku
русиньскый: Угльоводы
русский: Углеводы
sicilianu: Carbuidrati
slovenčina: Sacharid
slovenščina: Ogljikovi hidrati
српски / srpski: Угљени хидрат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ugljeni hidrati
Basa Sunda: Karbohidrat
svenska: Kolhydrat
Tagalog: Karbohidrata
татарча/tatarça: Күмерсулар
Türkçe: Karbonhidrat
тыва дыл: Углеводтар
українська: Вуглеводи
vèneto: Carboidrati
Tiếng Việt: Cacbohydrat
Winaray: Karbohidrato
吴语: 糖类
粵語:
žemaitėška: Onglėondėnē
中文: 糖类