Cadmium

Cadmium,  48Cd
Cadmium-crystal bar.jpg
General properties
Pronunciationm/ (KAD-mee-əm)
Appearancesilvery bluish-gray metallic
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)112.414(4)[1]
Cadmium in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson
Zn

Cd

Hg
silvercadmiumindium
Atomic number (Z)48
Groupgroup 12
Periodperiod 5
Blockd-block
Element category  post-transition metal, alternatively considered a transition metal
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point594.22 K ​(321.07 °C, ​609.93 °F)
Boiling point1040 K ​(767 °C, ​1413 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.65 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.996 g/cm3
Heat of fusion6.21 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization99.87 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.020 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)5305836547458671040
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, +1, +2 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.69
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 867.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1631.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3616 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 151 pm
Covalent radius144±9 pm
Van der Waals radius158 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of cadmium
Other properties
Crystal structure ​hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cadmium
Speed of sound thin rod2310 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion30.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity96.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity72.7 nΩ·m (at 22 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[2]
Magnetic susceptibility−19.8·10−6 cm3/mol[3]
Young's modulus50 GPa
Shear modulus19 GPa
Bulk modulus42 GPa
Poisson ratio0.30
Mohs hardness2.0
Brinell hardness203–220 MPa
CAS Number7440-43-9
History
Discovery and first isolationKarl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Named byFriedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Main isotopes of cadmium
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
106Cd1.25%stable
107Cdsyn6.5 hεAg
108Cd0.89%stable
109Cdsyn462.6 dεAg
110Cd12.47%stable
111Cd12.80%stable
112Cd24.11%stable
113Cd12.23%7.7×1015 yβIn
113mCdsyn14.1 yβ113In
ITCd
114Cd28.75%stable
115Cdsyn53.46 hβIn
116Cd7.51%3.1×1019 yββSn
| references

Cadmium is a metal. It is element 48 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Cd. Its atomic number is 48 and its atomic mass is 112.4. It is found in Group 12 on the periodic table.[4]

Properties

Physical properties

Cadmium is a blue-gray soft metal. It can be considered a transition metal or a post-transition metal. It is malleable and ductile. It is similar to zinc. It melts at 321°C.

Cadmium has 8 natural isotopes. 5 are radioactive, but 3 have very long half-lives so their radioactivity is almost nothing.

Chemical properties

Cadmium is a moderately reactive metal. It corrodes in moist air and dissolves in acids. It burns in air when powdered to make the brown cadmium oxide.

Chemical compounds

Cadmium chloride
Cadmium oxide

Cadmium forms chemical compounds in two oxidation states: +1 and +2. The +1 state is rare and unstable. The +2 state is much more common. Most +2 compounds dissolve easily in water and are white to yellow. Cadmium oxide can be brown, red, or white. Cadmium sulfide is bright yellow. Cadmium chloride and cadmium sulfate are colorless solids that dissolve easily in water. Cadmium fluoride is slightly soluble. Cadmium compounds are toxic when inhaled.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kadmium
አማርኛ: ካድሚየም
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Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáik (gĭng-sṳ̆k)
монгол: Кадми
Nederlands: Cadmium
नेपाल भाषा: क्याड्मियम
日本語: カドミウム
Nordfriisk: Kadmium
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oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kadmiy
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੈਡਮੀਅਮ
پنجابی: کیڈمیم
Piemontèis: Cadmio
Plattdüütsch: Cadmium
polski: Kadm
português: Cádmio
română: Cadmiu
Runa Simi: Kadmiyu
русский: Кадмий
संस्कृतम्: केडमियम्
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shqip: Kadmiumi
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slovenčina: Kadmium
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Soomaaliga: Kaadmiyaam
کوردی: کادمیۆم
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తెలుగు: కాడ్మియం
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اردو: کیڈمیئم
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Tiếng Việt: Cadimi
文言:
Winaray: Cadmyo
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ייִדיש: קאדמיום
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