Beryllium
English: Beryllium

Beryllium,  4Be
Be-140g.jpg
General properties
Pronunciationm/ (RIL-ee-əm)
Appearancewhite-gray metallic
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)9.0121831(5)[1]
Beryllium in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson


Be

Mg
lithiumberylliumboron
Atomic number (Z)4
Groupgroup 2 (alkaline earth metals)
Periodperiod 2
Blocks-block
Element category  alkaline earth metal
Electron configuration[He] 2s2
Electrons per shell
2, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1560 K ​(1287 °C, ​2349 °F)
Boiling point2742 K ​(2469 °C, ​4476 °F)
Density (near r.t.)1.85 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.690 g/cm3
Critical point5205 K,  MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion12.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization292 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity16.443 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)146216081791202323272742
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1,[2] +2 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.57
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 899.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1757.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 14,848.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 112 pm
Covalent radius96±3 pm
Van der Waals radius153 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of beryllium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure ​hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for beryllium
Speed of sound thin rod12,890 m/s (at r.t.)[3]
Thermal expansion11.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity200 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity36 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility−9.0·10−6 cm3/mol[4]
Young's modulus287 GPa
Shear modulus132 GPa
Bulk modulus130 GPa
Poisson ratio0.032
Mohs hardness5.5
Vickers hardness1670 MPa
Brinell hardness590–1320 MPa
CAS Number7440-41-7
History
DiscoveryLouis Nicolas Vauquelin (1798)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy (1828)
Main isotopes of beryllium
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
7Betrace53.12 dεLi
γ
9Be100%stable
Betrace1.39×106 yB
| references

Beryllium is in group 2 of the periodic table, so it is an alkaline earth metal. It is grayish (slightly gray) in color. It has an atomic number of 4 and is symbolized by the letters Be. It is toxic and should not be handled without proper training.

Beryllium has 4 electrons, 4 protons, and 5 neutrons.

Beryllium has one of the highest melting points of the light metals: 1560 K (1287 °C). It is added to other metals to make stronger alloys. Beryllium-copper alloy is used in tools because it does not make sparks.

At standard temperature and pressure, beryllium resists oxidation when exposed to oxygen.

Beryllium is best known for the chemical compounds it forms. Beryllium combines with aluminium, silicon and oxygen to make a mineral called beryl. Emerald and aquamarine are two varieties of beryl which are used as gemstones in jewelry.

Since it has a very high stiffness to weight ratio, beryllium is used to make the diaphragms in some high-end speakers.

Rareity

It is a relatively rare element in the universe. It usually occurs when larger atomic nuclei have split up. In stars, beryllium is depleted because it is fused and builds larger elements.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Berillium
አማርኛ: ቤሪሊየም
العربية: بيريليوم
aragonés: Berilio
armãneashti: Beriliu
asturianu: Beriliu
azərbaycanca: Berillium
تۆرکجه: بریلیوم
Bân-lâm-gú: Beryllium
беларуская: Берылій
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бэрыль (элемэнт)
भोजपुरी: बेरिलियम
български: Берилий
བོད་ཡིག: བེ་རི་ལིམ།
bosanski: Berilij
brezhoneg: Beriliom
català: Beril·li
Чӑвашла: Берилли
Cebuano: Berilio
čeština: Beryllium
chiShona: Beryllium
corsu: Berilliu
Cymraeg: Beriliwm
dansk: Beryllium
Deutsch: Beryllium
eesti: Berüllium
Ελληνικά: Βηρύλλιο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Berìli
English: Beryllium
español: Berilio
Esperanto: Berilio
euskara: Berilio
فارسی: بریلیم
Fiji Hindi: Beryllium
føroyskt: Beryllium
français: Béryllium
Frysk: Beryllium
furlan: Berili
Gaeilge: Beirilliam
Gaelg: Beryllium
Gàidhlig: Beirilium
galego: Berilio
贛語:
Gĩkũyũ: Beryllium
ગુજરાતી: બેરિલિયમ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Beryllium
хальмг: Белүр
한국어: 베릴륨
Hawaiʻi: Beryllium
հայերեն: Բերիլիում
हिन्दी: बेरिलियम
hornjoserbsce: Berylium
hrvatski: Berilij
Ido: Berilio
Bahasa Indonesia: Berilium
interlingua: Beryllium
íslenska: Beryllín
italiano: Berillio
עברית: בריליום
Kabɩyɛ: Bɛrɩlɩyɔm
ქართული: ბერილიუმი
қазақша: Бериллий
Kiswahili: Berili
Kreyòl ayisyen: Berilyòm
kurdî: Berîlyûm
Кыргызча: Бериллий
кырык мары: Бериллий
Latina: Beryllium
latviešu: Berilijs
Lëtzebuergesch: Beryllium
lietuvių: Berilis
Ligure: Berillio
Limburgs: Beryl
lingála: Belilu
Livvinkarjala: Berillium
la .lojban.: jinmrberilo
lumbaart: Berilio
magyar: Berillium
македонски: Берилиум
മലയാളം: ബെറിലിയം
Māori: Konuuku
मराठी: बेरिलियम
Bahasa Melayu: Berilium
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pì (gĭng-sṳ̆k)
монгол: Берилли
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘယ်ရီလီယမ်
Nederlands: Beryllium
नेपाली: बेरिलियम
नेपाल भाषा: बेरिलियम
日本語: ベリリウム
Nordfriisk: Beryllium
norsk: Beryllium
norsk nynorsk: Beryllium
occitan: Berilli
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବେରିଲିୟମ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Berilliy
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੇਰਿਲੀਅਮ
پنجابی: بیریلیم
Papiamentu: Beryllio
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បេរីល្យូម
Piemontèis: Berili
Plattdüütsch: Beryllium
português: Berílio
română: Beriliu
Runa Simi: Berilyu
русский: Бериллий
саха тыла: Бериллиум
संस्कृतम्: बेरिलियम्
Scots: Beryllium
Seeltersk: Beryllium
shqip: Beriliumi
sicilianu: Birìlliu
slovenčina: Berýlium
slovenščina: Berilij
Soomaaliga: Beriiliyaam
کوردی: بێریلیۆم
српски / srpski: Берилијум
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Berilijum
Sunda: Bérilium
suomi: Beryllium
svenska: Beryllium
Tagalog: Berilyo
татарча/tatarça: Бериллий
తెలుగు: బెరీలియం
тоҷикӣ: Бериллий
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏇᎵᎵᎥᎻ
Türkçe: Berilyum
українська: Берилій
اردو: بیریلیم
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بېرىللىي
vepsän kel’: Berillii
Tiếng Việt: Berili
文言:
Winaray: Berilyo
吴语:
ייִדיש: בעריליום
粵語:
中文: