Belarus

Republic of Belarus
  • Рэспубліка Беларусь
  • Республика Беларусь
Anthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь  ( Belarusian)
Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Biełaruś  ( transliteration)
State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus

Location of  Belarus  (green)on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Belarus  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [ Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Minsk
Official languages Belarusian
Russian [1]
Ethnic groups (2009) 83.7% Belarusians,
8.3% Russians,
3.1% Poles,
1.7% Ukrainians, 4.2% others and unspecified [2]
Demonym Belarusian
Government Presidential republic
•  President
Alexander Lukashenko [3]
Andrei Kobyakov
Legislature National Assembly
Council of the Republic
House of Representatives
Independence from the Soviet Union
• Declared
27 July 1990
• Established
25 August 1991
• Completed
25 December 1991
Area
• Total
207,595 km2 (80,153 sq mi) ( 85th)
• Water (%)
negligible (2.830 km2)1
Population
• 2009 census
9,503,807 [2] ( 86th)
• Density
45.8/km2 (118.6/sq mi) ( 142nd)
GDP ( PPP) 2010 estimate
• Total
$131.201 billion [4]
• Per capita
$13,909 [4]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
• Total
$54.713 billion [4]
• Per capita
$5,800 [4]
Gini (2005) 27.9 [5]
low
HDI (2011) Increase 0.756 [6]
high ·  65th
Currency Belarusian ruble ( BYR)
Time zone FET [7] ( UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code 375
ISO 3166 code BY
Internet TLD .by
  1. "FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture". FAO. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 

Belarus (officially called Republic of Belarus) is a country in Eastern Europe. [8] About nine million people live there. Its capital is Minsk. It was part of the Soviet Union until 1991. The president of Belarus has been Alexander Lukashenko since 1994. It is bordered by Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. Over forty percent of its 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) is forested. [9]

The State is a member of the UN, the CIS, Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Union State of Russia and Belarus (from 2 April 1997), as well as a member of other international organizations.

Until the 20th century, the lands of modern-day Belarus belonged to several countries. These included the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire. After the Russian Revolution, Belarus became part of the Soviet Union. It was renamed the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). The borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939. Some lands of the Second Polish Republic were added into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] The nation and its territory were devastated in World War II. Belarus lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. [16] In 1945 the Belorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR.

The parliament of the republic declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. During the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus became independent on 25 August 1991.

Over 70% of Belarus's population of 9.49 million live in the urban areas. [17] More than 80% of the population are ethnic Belarusians. Most of the rest are Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. The country has two official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The main religion in the country is Russian Orthodox Christianity. The second most popular, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following.

History

Prior to First World War

Both Homo erectus and Neanderthal remains have been found in the region. From 5,000 to 2,000 BCE, Bandkeramik cultures lived here. Cimmerians were in the area by 1,000 BCE. By 500 BCE, Slavs moved in. The Huns and Avars came through around 400–600 CE. They were unable to move the Slavs. [18]

The region that is now Belarus was first settled by Slavic tribes in the 6th century. They came into contact with the Varangians, who were bands of Scandinavian warriors and traders. [19] They formed Kievan Rus' in 862.

When Kievan Rus' ruler Yaroslav I the Wise died, the state split. [20] Later some were added into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. [21] Lithuania made a union with Poland. The union ended in 1795. [22] The land of Belarus went to the Russian Empire. [23] The land stayed with Russia until going to the German Empire during World War I. [24]

Since initial independence

Belarus said they were free from Germany on 25 March 1918. They formed the Belarusian People's Republic. [25] [26] Then the Polish–Soviet War started. A part of Belarus under Russian rule became the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1919. Then it added to the Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Other lands were divided between Poland and the Soviet Union after the war ended in 1921. The Belorussian SSR became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. [25] [27] The western part of modern Belarus stayed part of Poland. [28] [29] [29]

In 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland. This was the beginning of World War II. Parts of Poland were added to the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. They are now West Belarus.

Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. BSSR was the hardest-hit Soviet republic in World War II. During that time, Germany destroyed 209 out of 290 cities in the republic, 85% of the republic's industry, and more than one million buildings. [16] Casualties were between two and three million. [16] [30] The population of Belarus did not come back to its pre-war level until 1971. [30]

Joseph Stalin wanted Belorussian SSR to be more Russian. Russians were sent from other parts of the Soviet Union to be in the government. The use of the Belarusian language was limited. After Stalin's death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev continued the plan.

In 1986, the Belorussian SSR had nuclear fallout from the explosion at the Chernobyl power plant in neighboring Ukrainian SSR. [31]

Belarus said it was free on 27 July 1990. With the support of the Communist Party, the country's name was changed to the Republic of Belarus on 25 August 1991. [32]

Other Languages
Acèh: Bèlarusia
Адыгэбзэ: Урысыху
адыгабзэ: Белоруссие
Afrikaans: Wit-Rusland
Alemannisch: Weißrussland
አማርኛ: ቤላሩስ
Ænglisc: Hwītrussland
aragonés: Belarrusia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܠܐܪܘܣ
armãneashti: Arusia albã
arpetan: Bièlorussie
asturianu: Bielorrusia
Avañe'ẽ: Vielorrúsia
Aymar aru: Bilarus
azərbaycanca: Belarus
تۆرکجه: بلاروس
বাংলা: বেলারুশ
Bahasa Banjar: Bilarusia
Bân-lâm-gú: Belarus
башҡортса: Беларусь
беларуская: Беларусь
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Беларусь
भोजपुरी: बेलारूस
Bikol Central: Belarus
Bislama: Belarus
български: Беларус
Boarisch: Weißrussland
བོད་ཡིག: བྷེ་ལ་རསུ།
bosanski: Bjelorusija
brezhoneg: Belarus
буряад: Беларусь
català: Bielorússia
Чӑвашла: Беларуç
Cebuano: Biyelorusya
čeština: Bělorusko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bielorusia
chiShona: Belarus
chiTumbuka: Belarus
Cymraeg: Belarws
davvisámegiella: Vilges-Ruošša
Deutsch: Weißrussland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބެލަރޫސް
dolnoserbski: Běłoruska
eesti: Valgevene
Ελληνικά: Λευκορωσία
English: Belarus
español: Bielorrusia
Esperanto: Belorusio
estremeñu: Bielorrússia
euskara: Bielorrusia
eʋegbe: Belarus
فارسی: بلاروس
Fiji Hindi: Belarus
føroyskt: Hvítarussland
français: Biélorussie
Fulfulde: Belaruusiya
furlan: Bielorussie
Gagauz: Biyaz Rusiya
Gàidhlig: A' Bhealaruis
galego: Bielorrusia
ગુજરાતી: બેલારુસ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बेलारूस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Belarus
한국어: 벨라루스
Hausa: Belarus
Hawaiʻi: Belarusa
Հայերեն: Բելառուս
हिन्दी: बेलारूस
hornjoserbsce: Běłoruska
hrvatski: Bjelorusija
Igbo: Belarus
Ilokano: Bielorusia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বেলারুস
Bahasa Indonesia: Belarus
interlingua: Bielorussia
Interlingue: Bielorussia
isiZulu: IBelarusi
íslenska: Hvíta-Rússland
italiano: Bielorussia
עברית: בלארוס
Basa Jawa: Bélarus
kalaallisut: Hvideruslandi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬೆಲಾರುಸ್
Kapampangan: Bielorusya
къарачай-малкъар: Белоруссия
ქართული: ბელარუსი
kaszëbsczi: Biôłorusjô
қазақша: Беларусь
kernowek: Belarussi
Kinyarwanda: Belarusi
Kiswahili: Belarus
Kongo: Belarusia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Byelorisi
Kurdî: Belarûs
Кыргызча: Беларусия
кырык мары: Белорусси
Ladino: Bielorusia
лезги: Беларусия
لۊری شومالی: بئلاروٙس
latgaļu: Boltkrīveja
latviešu: Baltkrievija
Lëtzebuergesch: Wäissrussland
lietuvių: Baltarusija
Ligure: Bieloruscia
Limburgs: Wit-Rusland
lingála: Bielorusia
Livvinkarjala: Valgo-Ven'a
la .lojban.: belrus
Luganda: Belarus
lumbaart: Bielurüssia
македонски: Белорусија
Malagasy: Belarosia
മലയാളം: ബെലാറുസ്
Māori: Pērara
मराठी: बेलारूस
მარგალური: ბელარუსი
مازِرونی: بلاروس
Bahasa Melayu: Belarus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Belarus
молдовеняскэ: Беларус
монгол: Беларусь
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘီလာရုဇ်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Berarut
Nederlands: Wit-Rusland
Nedersaksies: Wit-Ruslaand
नेपाली: बेलारुस
नेपाल भाषा: बेलारुस
日本語: ベラルーシ
Napulitano: Bielorussia
нохчийн: Белорусси
Nordfriisk: Witjruslun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Belerus
norsk nynorsk: Kviterussland
Novial: Belarus
occitan: Bielorussia
олык марий: Белоруссий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବେଲାଋଷ
Oromoo: Beelaarus
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Belarus
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੇਲਾਰੂਸ
पालि: बेलारूस
Pangasinan: Belaro
پنجابی: بیلارس
Papiamentu: Belarus
پښتو: بېلاروس
Patois: Belarus
Перем Коми: Беларусь
Picard: Biélorussie
Piemontèis: Bielorussia
Tok Pisin: Belaras
Plattdüütsch: Wittrussland
polski: Białoruś
Ποντιακά: Λευκορουσία
português: Bielorrússia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Belorussiya
qırımtatarca: Belarus
reo tahiti: Pierorūtia
română: Belarus
rumantsch: Bielorussia
Runa Simi: Bilarus
русиньскый: Білорусь
русский: Белоруссия
саха тыла: Беларусь
संस्कृतम्: शुक्लरास्या
Sängö: Belarüsi
Seeltersk: Wietruslound
Sesotho: Belarus
sicilianu: Bielurussia
සිංහල: බෙලාරස්
SiSwati: IBhelalasi
slovenčina: Bielorusko
slovenščina: Belorusija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Бѣла Роусь
ślůnski: Bjołoruś
Soomaaliga: Belarus
کوردی: بیلاڕووس
Sranantongo: Belarusikondre
српски / srpski: Белорусија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Belorusija
Basa Sunda: Bélarus
svenska: Vitryssland
Tagalog: Belarus
தமிழ்: பெலருஸ்
Taqbaylit: Byilurusya
tarandíne: Russie Vianghe
татарча/tatarça: Беларусия
తెలుగు: బెలారస్
ትግርኛ: ቤላሩስ
тоҷикӣ: Беларус
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏇᎳᎷᏍ
Türkçe: Beyaz Rusya
Türkmençe: Belarus
Twi: Belarus
удмурт: Белоруссия
українська: Білорусь
اردو: بیلاروس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بېلورۇسسىيە
vèneto: Biełorusia
vepsän kel’: Vaugedvenäma
Tiếng Việt: Belarus
Volapük: Belarusän
文言: 白俄羅斯
West-Vlams: Wit-Rusland
Winaray: Belarus
Wolof: Belaarus
吴语: 白俄罗斯
Xitsonga: Belarus
ייִדיש: בעלארוס
Yorùbá: Bẹ̀lárùs
粵語: 白俄羅斯
Zazaki: Belarus
Zeêuws: Wit-Rusland
žemaitėška: Baltarosėjė
中文: 白俄罗斯
डोटेली: बेलारुस
Kabɩyɛ: Piyeloorusi