Augustus

Augustus
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Statue-Augustus.jpg
The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
Reign16 January 27 BC – 19 August 14 AD
SuccessorTiberius
Born23 September 63 BC (Roman calendar)
Rome, Roman Republic
Died19 August 14 (Julian calendar) (aged 76)
Nola, Italy, Roman Empire
BurialMausoleum of Augustus, Rome
Spouse
  • Clodia Pulchra (43 – 40 BC)
  • Scribonia (40 – 38 BC)
  • Livia Drusilla (38 BC – 14 AD)
IssueJulia the Elder;
Gaius Caesar (adoptive);
Lucius Caesar (adoptive);
Tiberius (adoptive)
Full name
Gaius Octavius Thurinus (from birth to adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC);
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (from 44 to 27 BC);
Imperator Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus (from 27 BC until death in 14 AD)
Imperial DynastyJulio-Claudian
FatherNatural: Gaius Octavius;
Adoptive: Julius Caesar (in 44 BC)
MotherAtia Balba Caesonia
Rmn-social-header-1-.svg
These articles cover Ancient Rome and the fall of the Republic
Roman Republic, First Triumvirate, Assassination of Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII, Pompey,Cicero, Second Triumvirate

Augustus (Latin: Imperator Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the first Roman Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He led Rome in its transition from the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire.

Life

Octavian, as he was originally called, was the adopted son of the dictator of the Roman Republic, Julius Caesar. Octavian came into power in the Second Triumvirate. This was three men ruling over the Roman Republic: Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian.

All three were loyal to Julius Caesar, the assassinated dictator, killed in 44 BC. Following his death a civil war broke out across Rome, between those loyal to Caesar, and the conspirators, led by two of Caesar's assassins, Brutus and Cassius.

At first, Octavian was the junior partner in the triumvirate. Lepidus was more experienced in government, and Mark Antony was a fine military leader. The triumvirate defeated Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi, 42 BC, largely due to Antony's leadership. Then they split the leadership of the Republic three ways. Antony took the east, Lepidus took Spain and part of North Africa, and Octavian took Italy.

Antony followed in Caesar's footsteps by going to Egypt and becoming Cleopatra's lover. They had three children together. His absence from Rome allowed the intelligent Octavian to build up support.

The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC, and disagreement turned to civil war in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium and then at Alexandria. He committed suicide, as did his lover, Cleopatra VII of Egypt, in 30 BC. Lepidus was sidelined, blamed for a revolt in Sicily, and removed from government. He died peacefully in exile in Circeii in Italy in the year 13 BC.

After winning the power struggle, Octavian was voted as Emperor by the Roman Senate in 31 BC. He took the name "Augustus" (which meant 'exalted'). He ruled until AD 14,[1] when his stepson and son-in-law Tiberius became Emperor in his place.

During his reign, some of those who were against his government were murdered (especially those senators who wanted to keep the Roman Republic). He promised to make Rome a Republic again, but instead proclaimed himself High Priest (Pontifex Maximus). Many temples in the provinces set up statues of him as one of their gods. The name of the month "August" in English (and most other European languages) comes from him.

His main accomplishment was the creation of the Roman Empire, a political structure that lasted for nearly five centuries more. He first recruited and set up the Praetorian Guard.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Augustus
አማርኛ: አውግስጦስ
Ænglisc: Augustus
aragonés: César Augusto
armãneashti: Augustus
asturianu: César Augustu
Aymar aru: César Augusto
azərbaycanca: Oktavian Avqust
تۆرکجه: آقوستوس
Bân-lâm-gú: Augustus
Basa Banyumasan: Augustus
башҡортса: Октавиан Август
беларуская: Актавіян Аўгуст
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Актавіян Аўгуст
Bikol Central: Caesar Augustus
Bislama: Augustus
български: Октавиан Август
Boarisch: Augustus
català: August
Cebuano: Augusto
čeština: Augustus
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Augustus
Chi-Chewa: Augustus
corsu: Augustu
Cymraeg: Augustus
dansk: Augustus
Deutsch: Augustus
ދިވެހިބަސް: Augustus
dolnoserbski: Augustus Caesar
eesti: Augustus
English: Augustus
español: Augusto
Esperanto: Aŭgusto Cezaro
estremeñu: Cesa Augustu
euskara: Zesar Augusto
فارسی: آگوستوس
Fiji Hindi: Augustus
føroyskt: Augustus
français: Auguste
furlan: August
Gaeilge: Ágastas
贛語: 屋大維
Gĩkũyũ: Augustus
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Augustus
Hausa: Augustus
Hawaiʻi: Augustus
हिन्दी: ऑगस्टस
hrvatski: August
Ilokano: Augusto
Bahasa Indonesia: Augustus
interlingua: Cesare Augusto
Interlingue: Augustus
isiXhosa: Augustus
íslenska: Ágústus
italiano: Augusto
Basa Jawa: Augustus
Kabɩyɛ: César Auguste
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಗಸ್ಟಸ್
Kiswahili: Augusto
Kongo: Augustus
kurdî: Augustus
latgaļu: Augustus
latviešu: Oktaviāns
Lëtzebuergesch: Augustus
lietuvių: Augustas
Ligure: Aogusto
Limburgs: Keizer Augustus
Lingua Franca Nova: Augusto
Livvinkarjala: Augustus
македонски: Октавијан Август
Malagasy: Auguste
മലയാളം: അഗസ്റ്റസ്
मराठी: ऑगस्टस
მარგალური: ავგუსტუსი
Bahasa Melayu: Augustus
Baso Minangkabau: Augustus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Augustus
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဩဂတ်စတက်ဆီဇာ
Nāhuatl: Augustus
Dorerin Naoero: Augustus
Nederlands: Augustus (keizer)
Napulitano: Augusto
norsk: Augustus
norsk nynorsk: Augustus av Romarriket
occitan: August
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅଗଷ୍ଟସ
Oromoo: Awugustuus
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Avgust (imperator)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਗਸਟਸ ਕੈਸਰ
پنجابی: آگسٹس
Patois: Agostos
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អូហ្គុសទុស
Piemontèis: Otavian August
Tok Pisin: Augustus Caesar
Plattdüütsch: Augustus
português: Augusto
Qaraqalpaqsha: Oktavian Avgust
rumantsch: Augustus
Runa Simi: Augustus
русиньскый: Октавіан Авґуст
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱚᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱥ
Gagana Samoa: Aokuso Kaisara
संस्कृतम्: आगस्टस कैसर
Scots: Augustus
Seeltersk: Octavianus
shqip: Augusti
sicilianu: Cèsari Augustu
සිංහල: ඔගස්ටස්
slovenčina: Octavianus Augustus
slovenščina: Gaj Avgust Oktavijan
Soomaaliga: Augustus Octavian
کوردی: ئەگوستوس
српски / srpski: Октавијан Август
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: August (rimski car)
Basa Sunda: Octavianus
suomi: Augustus
svenska: Augustus
Tagalog: Cesar Augusto
татарча/tatarça: Октавиан Август
తెలుగు: ఆగస్టస్
Türkçe: Augustus
Türkmençe: Oktawian Awgust
українська: Октавіан Август
اردو: آگستس
vèneto: Augustus
vepsän kel’: Oktavian August
Tiếng Việt: Augustus
Volapük: Augustus
Võro: Augustus
文言: 奧古斯都
West-Vlams: Augustus
Winaray: Augustus
吴语: 奧古斯都
ייִדיש: אויגוסטוס
Yorùbá: Augustus
粵語: 奧古斯都
Zazaki: Augustus
Zeêuws: Augustus
žemaitėška: Augosts
中文: 奥古斯都