Altruism

Giving to the poor is considered an altruistic action in many cultures and religions.

Altruism (or selflessness) is concern for the well-being of others. A truly altruistic act is something done completely for the benefit of another, without concern for the self. It usually involves sacrificing something (time, effort or possessions), with no expectation of receiving anything in return (including recognition for the act of giving). It is considered a virtue in many cultures and a basic aspect of most religions. It is the opposite of selfishness.

Altruism is different from acts done out of responsibility, loyalty or moral obligation towards a specific individual (such as a god, a king or a government). Whether "pure" altruism is possible has been debated by scholars for thousands of years. One theory says that no act of giving, helping or sacrificing can be described as truly selfless, because the person will receive personal gratification from it (that is, a feeling of satisfaction that they have done something good for another). Whether this theory is correct depends on whether such feelings qualify as a 'reward' or 'benefit'.

The concept of altruism has long been studied in philosophy and ethics. The term was originally used in the 19th century by sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte. It has become an important topic for psychologists (especially those that study evolutionary psychology), evolutionary biologists and ethologists. The scholars of each field have developed different ideas about altruism. All agree that altruism is caring about the welfare of other people and acting to help them.

Evolutionary psychology

In the animal kingdom, worker bees demonstrate altruism when they attack other animals that threaten the hive. The bee stings and injects venom. Once it does this, the bee will die, but it willingly does this to defend the hive.

In the study of animal behaviour, altruism is seen in social animals when an individual willingly sacrifices itself for the better survival of the group.[1] There are several theories about how this behaviour has come about under evolution by natural selection.

  • Kin selection,[2] is a theory that animals and humans are more altruistic towards members of their own species than to species that are more distantly related. This has been confirmed in many studies.[3] See also: Eusociality: Theories of social evolution.
  • Vested interests. People are likely to suffer if their family, friends or allies suffer. Helping one's own family and friends may therefore eventually benefit the self. This is about cooperation. Extreme self-sacrifice for the group may happen if something threatens to kill the entire group.[3]
  • Reciprocal altruism.[4][5] A person is more likely to help another if there is a chance that the other person will help them in return, whether immediately or eventually. This is about reciprocity.[6] Many people cooperate if and only if others cooperate in return. Reputation may become important in this. A person with a good reputation for reciprocity have a higher chance of receiving help even from persons they have had no direct interactions with previously.[3]
  • Handicap principle. Acts of altruism are often used to show others what skills one has and what resources one has access to.[7] This may signal to others that the altruist could be valuable as a sexual partner. Women find altruistic men to be attractive partners.[3][8] In animals, research has found that good hunters have better success finding partners to reproduce with.[3] In humans, people who know that their acts will be seen sometimes even wastefully donate money they know are not needed by the recipient because it helps their reputation.[8]

These theories try to explain how evolution has shaped psychological mechanisms, such as emotions, that encourage altruistic behaviour.[3]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Altruïsme
Alemannisch: Altruismus
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беларуская: Альтруізм
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فارسی: ایثار
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한국어: 이타주의
हिन्दी: परहितवाद
hrvatski: Altruizam
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íslenska: Ósérplægni
italiano: Altruismo
עברית: זולתנות
ქართული: ალტრუიზმი
қазақша: Альтруизм
Кыргызча: Альтруизм
Latina: Altruismus
latviešu: Altruisms
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Bahasa Melayu: Altruisme
Nederlands: Altruïsme
日本語: 利他主義
norsk: Altruisme
norsk nynorsk: Altruisme
occitan: Altruisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Altruizm
polski: Altruizm
português: Altruísmo
română: Altruism
русский: Альтруизм
संस्कृतम्: परोपकारः
Scots: Altruism
shqip: Altruizmi
slovenčina: Altruizmus
slovenščina: Altruizem
српски / srpski: Алтруизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Altruizam
suomi: Altruismi
svenska: Altruism
татарча/tatarça: Альтруистлык
тоҷикӣ: Алтруизм
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українська: Альтруїзм
Tiếng Việt: Chủ nghĩa vị tha
粵語: 利他主義
中文: 利他主义