Giving to the poor is considered an altruistic action in many cultures and religions.
Altruism (or selflessness) is concern for the well-being of others. A truly altruistic act is something done completely for the benefit of another, without concern for the self. It usually involves sacrificing something (time, effort or possessions), with no expectation of receiving anything in return (including recognition for the act of giving). It is considered a virtue in many cultures and a basic aspect of most religions. It is the opposite of selfishness.
Altruism is different from acts done out of responsibility, loyalty or moralobligation towards a specific individual (such as a god, a king or a government). Whether "pure" altruism is possible has been debated by scholars for thousands of years. One theory says that no act of giving, helping or sacrificing can be described as truly selfless, because the person will receive personal gratification from it (that is, a feeling of satisfaction that they have done something good for another). Whether this theory is correct depends on whether such feelings qualify as a 'reward' or 'benefit'.
In the animal kingdom, worker bees demonstrate altruism when they attack other animals that threaten the hive. The bee stings and injects venom. Once it does this, the bee will die, but it willingly does this to defend the hive.
Vested interests. People are likely to suffer if their family, friends or allies suffer. Helping one's own family and friends may therefore eventually benefit the self. This is about cooperation. Extreme self-sacrifice for the group may happen if something threatens to kill the entire group.
Reciprocal altruism. A person is more likely to help another if there is a chance that the other person will help them in return, whether immediately or eventually. This is about
reciprocity. Many people cooperate if and only if others cooperate in return. Reputation may become important in this. A person with a good reputation for reciprocity have a higher chance of receiving help even from persons they have had no direct interactions with previously.
Handicap principle. Acts of altruism are often used to show others what skills one has and what resources one has access to. This may signal to others that the altruist could be valuable as a
sexual partner. Women find altruistic men to be attractive partners. In animals, research has found that good hunters have better success finding partners to reproduce with. In humans, people who know that their acts will be seen sometimes even wastefully donate money they know are not needed by the recipient because it helps their reputation.
These theories try to explain how evolution has shaped psychological mechanisms, such as emotions, that encourage altruistic behaviour.