Sun

This airticle is aboot the starn. For ither uisses, see Sun (disambiguation).
The Sun Sun symbol.svg
Sun white.jpg
Sun wi sunspats an limm daurkenin as seen in veesible licht wi solar filter.
Observation data
Mean distance
frae Yird
1 au1.496×108 km
8 min 19 s at licht speed
Visual brightness (V)−26.74[1]
Absolute magnitude4.83[1]
Spectral classificationG2V[2]
MetallicityZ = 0.0122[3]
Angular size31.6–32.7 meenits o arc[4]
AdjectivesSolar
Orbital chairactereestics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
≈ 2.7×1017 km
27,200 light-years
Galactic period(2.25–2.50)×108 yr
Velocity≈ 220 km/s (orbit aroond the centre o the Milky Way)
≈ 20 km/s (relative tae average velocity o ither starns in stellar neeghbourheid)
≈ 370 km/s[5] (relative tae the cosmic microwave backgrund)
Pheesical chairactereestics
Equatorial radius695,700 km,[6]
696,392 km[7]
109 × Yird[8]
Equatorial circumference4.379×106 km[8]
109 × Yird[8]
Flattenin9×10−6
Surface aurie6.09×1012 km2[8]
12,000 × Yird[8]
Vollum1.41×1018 km3[8]
1,300,000 × Yird
Mass(1.98855±0.00025)×1030 kg[1]
333,000 × Yird[1]
Average density1.408 g/cm3[1][8][9]
0.255 × Yird[1][8]
Center density (modeled)162.2 g/cm3[1]
12.4 × Yird
Equatorial surface gravity274.0 m/s2[1]
27.94 
27,542.29 cgs
28 × Yird[8]
Moment o inertia factor0.070[1] (estimate)
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
617.7 km/s[8]
55 × Yird[8]
TemperaturCenter (modeled): 1.57×107 K[1]
Photosphere (effective): 5,772 K[1]
Corona: ≈ 5×106 K
Luminosity (Lsol)3.828×1026 W[1]
≈ 3.75×1028 lm
≈ 98 lm/W efficacy
Mean radiance (Isol)2.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1
Age≈ 4.6 billion years[10][11]
Rotation chairactereestics
Obliquity7.25°[1]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(tae the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[12]
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Declination
o North pole
+63.87°
63° 52' North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 d[1]
(at 16° latitude)25.38 d[1]
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[12]
(at powls)34.4 d[1]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
7.189×103 km/h[8]
Photospheric composeetion (bi mass)
Hydrogen73.46%[13]
Helium24.85%
Oxygen0.77%
Caurbon0.29%
Airn0.16%
Neon0.12%
Nitrogen0.09%
Silicon0.07%
Magnesium0.05%
Sulfur0.04%

The Sun is the starn at the centre o the Solar Seestem. It is a geynear perfect sphere o het plasma,[14][15] wi internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is bi faur the maist important soorce o energy for life on Yird. Its diameter is aboot 1.39 million kilometres, i.e. 109 times that o Yird, an its mass is aboot 330,000 times that o Yird, accoontin for aboot 99.86% o the tot mass o the Solar Seestem.[17]Aboot three quarters o the Sun's mass conseests o hydrogen (~73%); the rest is maistly helium (~25%), wi muckle smawer quantities o hivier elements, includin oxygen, caurbon, neon, an airn.[18]

The Sun is a G-teep main-sequence starn (G2V) based on its spectral cless. As sic, it is informally an nae completely accurately referred tae as a yellae dwarf (its licht is closer tae white nor yellae). It formed approximately 4.6 billion[lower-alpha 1][10][19] years ago frae the gravitational collapse o maiter within a region o a lairge molecular clood. Maist o this maiter gaithered in the centre, whauras the rest flattened intae an orbitin disk that becam the Solar Seestem. The central mass becam sae het an dense that it eventually ineetiatit nuclear fusion in its core. It is thocht that awmaist aw starms form bi this process.

The Sun is aboot middle-aged; it haes nae chynged dramatically for mir than fower billion[lower-alpha 1] years, an will remeen fairly stable for mair nor anither five billion years. It currently fuzes aboot 544 million tonnes o hydrogen intae helium ivery seicont, converting 3.6 million tonnes o maiter into energy ivery seicont as a result. This energy, that can take atween 10,000 an 170,000 years tae escape frae its core, is the soorce o the Sun's licht an heat. In aboot 5 billion years, whan hydrogen fusion in its core haes dimeenished tae the point at which the Sun is na langer in hydrostatic equilibrium, the core o the Sun will experience a merkit increase in density an temperatur while its ooter layers expand tae eventually acome a red giant. It is calculatit that the Sun will acome sufficiently lairge tae engulf the current orbits o Mercury an Venus, an render Yird uninhabitable. Efter this, it will shed its ooter layers an acome a dense teep o cuilin starn kent as a white dwarf, that na langer produces energy bi fusion, but still glowes an gies aff heat frae its previous fusion.

The enormous effect o the Sun on Yird haes been recognised syne prehistoric times, an the Sun haes been regairdit bi some culturs as a deity. The synodic rotation o Yird an its orbit aroond the Sun are the basis o solar calendars, ane o which is the predominant calendar in uise the day.

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Aw nummers in this aorticle are short scale. Ane billion is 109, or 1,000,000,000.
Other Languages
Аҧсшәа: Амра
адыгабзэ: Тыгъэ
Afrikaans: Son
Akan: Ewia
Alemannisch: Sonne
አማርኛ: ፀሐይ
aragonés: Sol
Ænglisc: Sunne
العربية: الشمس (اسم)
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܫܡܫܐ
مصرى: الشمس
অসমীয়া: সূৰ্য
asturianu: Sol
Atikamekw: Pisimw
авар: Бакъ
Aymar aru: Willka
azərbaycanca: Günəş
تۆرکجه: گونش
башҡортса: Ҡояш
Boarisch: Sun
žemaitėška: Saulė
Bikol Central: Saldang
беларуская: Сонца
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сонца
български: Слънце
भोजपुरी: सुरुज
Bahasa Banjar: Matahari
বাংলা: সূর্য
བོད་ཡིག: ཉི་མ།
brezhoneg: Heol
bosanski: Sunce
буряад: Наран
català: Sol
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nĭk-tàu
нохчийн: Малх
Cebuano: Adlaw
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏅᏓ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Éše'he
کوردی: خۆر
corsu: Soli
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᒌᔑᑳᐅᐲᓯᒽ
qırımtatarca: Küneş
čeština: Slunce
kaszëbsczi: Słuńce
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Слъньцє
Чӑвашла: Хĕвел
Cymraeg: Haul
dansk: Solen
Deutsch: Sonne
Zazaki: Tici
डोटेली: सूर्य
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިރު
Ελληνικά: Ήλιος
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Såul
English: Sun
Esperanto: Suno
español: Sol
eesti: Päike
euskara: Eguzkia
estremeñu: Sol
فارسی: خورشید
Fulfulde: Naange
suomi: Aurinko
Võro: Päiv
føroyskt: Sólin
français: Soleil
arpetan: Solely
Nordfriisk: San
furlan: Soreli
Frysk: Sinne
Gaeilge: An Ghrian
贛語: 太陽
Gàidhlig: Grian
galego: Sol
Avañe'ẽ: Kuarahy
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌿𐌽𐌽𐍉
ગુજરાતી: સૂર્ય
Gaelg: Yn Ghrian
Hausa: Rana
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngit-thèu
Hawaiʻi:
עברית: השמש
हिन्दी: सूर्य
Fiji Hindi: Suraj
hrvatski: Sunce
hornjoserbsce: Słónco
Kreyòl ayisyen: Solèy
magyar: Nap
Հայերեն: Արեգակ
interlingua: Sol
Bahasa Indonesia: Matahari
Interlingue: Sole
Ilokano: Init
ГӀалгӀай: Малх
Ido: Suno
íslenska: Sólin
italiano: Sole
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᕿᓂᖅ
日本語: 太陽
Patois: Son
la .lojban.: solri
Basa Jawa: Srengéngé
ქართული: მზე
Qaraqalpaqsha: Quyash
Taqbaylit: Iṭij
Kabɩyɛ: Wɩsɩ
Kongo: Ntangu
қазақша: Күн (жұлдыз)
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព្រះអាទិត្យ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸೂರ್ಯ
한국어: 태양
Перем Коми: Шонді
къарачай-малкъар: Кюн
Ripoarisch: Sunn
kurdî: Roj (stêrk)
коми: Шонді
kernowek: Howl
Кыргызча: Күн
Latina: Sol
Ladino: Sol
Lëtzebuergesch: Sonn
лезги: Рагъ
Lingua Franca Nova: Sol
Limburgs: Zon
Ligure:
lumbaart: Suu
lingála: Mói
lietuvių: Saulė
latgaļu: Saule
latviešu: Saule
मैथिली: सूर्य
Basa Banyumasan: Srengenge
мокшень: Шись
Malagasy: Masoandro
македонски: Сонце
മലയാളം: സൂര്യൻ
монгол: Нар
मराठी: सूर्य
Bahasa Melayu: Matahari
Malti: Xemx
Mirandés: Sol
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နေ
مازِرونی: خورشید
Dorerin Naoero: Ekwan
Nāhuatl: Tōnatiuh
Napulitano: Sole
Plattdüütsch: Sünn
Nedersaksies: Zunne
नेपाली: सूर्य
नेपाल भाषा: सूर्द्य
Nederlands: Zon
norsk nynorsk: Sola
norsk: Solen
Novial: Sune
Nouormand: Solé
Diné bizaad: Jóhonaaʼéí
occitan: Soleu
Livvinkarjala: Päiväine
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ
Ирон: Хур
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੂਰਜ
Kapampangan: Aldo
Papiamentu: Solo
Picard: Solel
Deitsch: Sunn
Pälzisch: Sunn
polski: Słońce
Piemontèis: Sol
پنجابی: سورج
Ποντιακά: Ήλος
پښتو: لمر
português: Sol
Runa Simi: Inti
rumantsch: Sulegl
Romani: Kham
română: Soare
armãneashti: Soari
русский: Солнце
русиньскый: Сонце
संस्कृतम्: सूर्यः
саха тыла: Күн (сулус)
sardu: Sole
sicilianu: Suli
سنڌي: سج
davvisámegiella: Beaivváš
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sunce
සිංහල: හිරු
Simple English: Sun
slovenčina: Slnko
slovenščina: Sonce
chiShona: Zuva
Soomaaliga: Qorax
shqip: Dielli
српски / srpski: Сунце
Seeltersk: Sunne
Basa Sunda: Panonpoé
svenska: Solen
Kiswahili: Jua
ślůnski: Słůńce
ತುಳು: ಸೂರ್ಯ
తెలుగు: సూర్యుడు
тоҷикӣ: Офтоб
Türkmençe: Gün (ýyldyz)
Tok Pisin: San
Türkçe: Güneş
татарча/tatarça: Кояш
chiTumbuka: Zuwa
Twi: Ewia
тыва дыл: Хүн (сылдыс)
удмурт: Шунды
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قۇياش
українська: Сонце
اردو: سورج
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Quyosh
vèneto: Sołe
vepsän kel’: Päiväine
Tiếng Việt: Mặt Trời
West-Vlams: Zunne
Volapük: Sol
walon: Solea
Wolof: Jant
吴语: 太陽
хальмг: Нарн
isiXhosa: UKat
მარგალური: ბჟა
ייִדיש: זון
Yorùbá: Òrùn
Vahcuengh: Daengngoenz
Zeêuws: Zunne
中文: 太阳
文言:
Bân-lâm-gú: Ji̍t-thâu
粵語: 太陽
isiZulu: Ilanga