Spain (Spaingie: España [esˈpaɲa] ( listen)), offeecially the Kinrick o Spain (Spaingie: Reino de España),[lower-alpha 1][lower-alpha 2] is a kintra maistly locatit on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The kintra's mainland is mairchit tae the sooth an east bi the Mediterranean Sea except for a smaw laund boondary wi Gibraltar; tae the north an northeast bi Fraunce, Andorrae, an the Bay o Biscay; an tae the wast an northwest bi Portugal an the Atlantic Ocean. Spaingie territory includes twa large airchipelagaes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea an the Canary Islands aff the African Atlantic coast, twa ceeties, Ceuta an Melilla, on the African mainland an several smaw islands in the Alboran Sea near the African coast. Spain is the anerly European kintra tae hae a mairch wi an African kintra (Morocco)[lower-alpha 9]
Wi an aurie o 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the lairgest kintra in Soothren Europe, the seicont lairgest kintra in Wastren Europe an the European Union, an the fowert lairgest kintra in the European continent. Bi population, Spain is the saxt lairgest in Europe an the fift in the European Union. Spain's caipital an lairgest ceety is Madrid; ither major urban auries include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao an Málaga.
Modren humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula aroond 35,000 years ago. Iberian culturs alang wi auncient Phoenicie, Greek an Carthaginian settlements developit on the peninsula till it cam unner Roman rule aroond 200 BCE, efter that the region wis named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end o the Wastren Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migratit frae Central Europe, invadit the Iberian peninsula an established relatively independent realms in its wastren provinces, includin the Sueves, Alans an Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths wad forcibly integrate aw remeenin independent territories in the peninsula, includin Byzantine provinces, intae the Kinrick o Toledo, that mair or less unifee'd poleetically, ecclesiastically an legally aw the umwhile Roman provinces or successor kinricks o that wis then documentit as Hispanie.
In the late aicht century the Visigothic kinrick fell tae the Moors, that ruled maist o the peninsula for the next seiven centuries, leavin anerly a haundful o smaw Christian realms in the north. Follaein the Moorish conquest, Europeans begoud a gradual process o retakkin the region kent as the Reconquista, that bi the late 15t century culminatit in the emergence o Spain as a unifee'd kintra unner the Catholic Monarchs. In the early modren period, Spain becam ane o history's first global empires, leavin a vast cultural an lingueestic legacy that includes ower 500 million Hispanophones, makkin Spaingie the warld's seicont maist spoken native leid, efter Mandarin Cheenese.
Spain is a secular pairlamentar democracy an constitutional monarchy, wi Keeng Felipe VI as heid o state. It is a major developit kintra wi the warld's fowerteent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an saxteent lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Cooncil o Europe (CoE), the Organisation o Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD), OSCE, the Schengen Aurie, the Warld Tred Organisation (WTO) an mony ither internaitional organisations. Spain hars a "permanent invitation" tae the G20 summits that occur generally ance a year.