Qing Dynasty

Great Qing
大清
Daicing gurun.svg

 

1644–1912


Flag

Anthem
鞏金甌
"Gong Jin'ou"
("Cup o Solid Gowd")
The Qing Empire in 1890.
CaipitalBeijing
LeidsCheenese,Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan, Turki (Modern Uighur),[1] numerous regional leids an dialects o Cheenese
ReleegionHeaven worship, Shamanism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity, Cheenese folk releegion, ethers
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Emperor
 - 1644–1661Shunzhi Emperor
 - 1908–1912Xuantong Emperor
Regent
 - 1908–1912Empress Dowager Longyu
Prime Meenister
 - 1911Yikuang
 - 1911–1912Yuan Shikai
Historical eraImperial era
 - Collapse o the Ming25 April 1644
 - Battle o Shanhai Pass27 Mey 1644
 - Sino-Japanese War1 Aug 1894–17 Apr 1895
 - Wuchang Uprisin10 October 1911
 - Xinhai Revolution12 Februar 1912
Aurie
 - 1760 est.13,150,000 km² (5,077,243 sq mi)
 - 1790 est. (incl. vassals)[2]14,700,000 km² (5,675,702 sq mi)
Population
 - 1740 est.140,000,000 
 - 1776 est.268,238,000 
 - 1790 est.301,000,000 
SillerTael (Tls.)
The day pairt o Afghanistan
 Burma
 Cheenae
 Hong Kong
 Indie
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Macao
 Mongolie
 Roushie
 Taiwan
 Tajikistan
 Vietnam
Wairnin: Value specified for "continent" does not comply
Qing Dynasty
Cheenese name
Cheenese
Empire of the Great Qing
Tradeetional Cheenese帝國
Simplifee'd Cheenese帝国
Later Jin Dynasty
Tradeetional Cheenese
Simplifee'd Cheenese
Manchu name
Manchu script

Daicing gurun.svg (Daicing Gurun)

Amaga aisin gurun1.png (Amaga Aisin Gurun)

The Qing Dynasty, an aa Empire o the Great Qing or Great Qing, wis the last imperial dynasty o Cheenae, rulin frae 1644 tae 1912 wi a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It wis precedit bi the Ming Dynasty an succeeded bi the Republic o Cheenae.

The dynasty wis foondit bi the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastren Cheenae. The Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, that wis oreeginally a vassal o the Ming emperors, began unifyin the Jurchen clans in the late saxteent century. Bi 1635, Nurhachi's son Hong Taiji coud claim thay constitutit a single an unitit Manchu fowk an began forcin the Ming oot o Liaoning in soothren Manchurie. In 1644, the Ming caipital Beijing wis sacked bi a paisant revolt led bi Li Zicheng, an umwhile minor Ming offeecial that acame the leader o the paisant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committit suicide whan the ceety fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance wi the Manchus an opened the Shanhai Pass tae the Manchurian airmy. Unner Prince Dorgon, thay seized control o Beijing an owerthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Complete pacification o Cheenae wis accomplished aroond 1683 unner the Kangxi Emperor.

Ower the course o its reign, the Qing acame heichly integratit wi Cheenese cultur. The imperial examinations continued an Han ceevil servants admeenistered the empire alongside Manchu anes. The Qing reached its heicht unner the Qianlong Emperor in the aichteenth century, expandin beyond Cheenae's prior an later boondaries. Imperial corruption exemplified bi the meenister Heshen an a series o rebellions, naitural disasters, an defeats in wars against European pouers gravely weakened the Qing durin the nineteent century. "Unequal Treaties" providit for extraterritoriality an removed lairge auries o treaty ports frae Cheenese sovereignty. The govrenment attempts tae modrenise durin the Sel-Strenthenin Muivement in the late 19t century yieldit few lastin results. Losin the First Sino-Japanese War o 1894–1895 wis a wattershed for the Qing govrenment an the result demonstratit that reform haed modrenized Japan signeeficantly syne the Meiji Restoration in 1867, especially as compared wi the Sel-Strenthenin Muivement in Cheenae.

The 1911 Wuchang Uprisin o the New Airmy endit wi the owerthrow o the Empress Dowager Longyu an the infant Puyi on Februar 12, 1912. Despite the declaration o the Republic o Cheenae, the generals wad continue tae ficht amongst themselves for the next several decades durin the Warlord Era. Aisin-Gioro Puyi wis briefly restored tae pouer in Beijing bi Zhang Xun in Julie 1917, an in Manchukuo bi the Japanese atween 1932 an 1945.

  • references

References

  1. Mark C. Elliott. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China'. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. pp. 290-291.[1]
  2. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 219–229. 1076–156x Check |issn= value (help). Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Qing-dinastie
Alemannisch: Qing-Dynastie
aragonés: Dinastía Qing
asturianu: Dinastía Qing
azərbaycanca: Tzin sülaləsi
башҡортса: Цин империяһы
žemaitėška: Čing dinastėjė
беларуская: Імперыя Цын
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дынастыя Цын
български: Цин (17-20 век)
brezhoneg: Tierniezh Qing
bosanski: Dinastija Qing
català: Dinastia Qing
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chĭng-dièu
čeština: Říše Čching
Deutsch: Qing-Dynastie
English: Qing dynasty
Esperanto: Dinastio Qing
español: Dinastía Qing
euskara: Qing dinastia
français: Dynastie Qing
贛語:
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chhîn-chhèu
Fiji Hindi: Qing Dynasty
hrvatski: Dinastija Qing
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Qing
íslenska: Tjingveldið
italiano: Dinastia Qing
日本語:
Basa Jawa: Wangsa Qing
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រាជវង្សឆេង
한국어: 청나라
къарачай-малкъар: Цин династия
Кыргызча: Цин империясы
Latina: Domus Qing
latviešu: Cjinu dinastija
монгол: Чин улс
Bahasa Melayu: Dinasti Qing
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ချင်းမင်းဆက်
مازِرونی: چینگ سلسله
Plattdüütsch: Qing-Dynastie
नेपाली: चिङ वंश
नेपाल भाषा: चिङ्ग राजवंश
Nederlands: Qing-dynastie
norsk nynorsk: Qing
occitan: Dinastia Qing
پنجابی: چنگ سلطنت
português: Dinastia Qing
română: Dinastia Qing
русский: Империя Цин
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dinastija Qing
Simple English: Qing dynasty
slovenčina: Čching
slovenščina: Dinastija Čing
српски / srpski: Династија Ћинг
svenska: Qingdynastin
Kiswahili: Nasaba ya Qing
Türkmençe: Sin nasilşalygy
Türkçe: Çing Hanedanı
татарча/tatarça: Чиң династиясе
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: چىڭ سۇلالىسى
українська: Династія Цін
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sin (sulola)
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Thanh
吴语: 清朝
მარგალური: ცინიშ დინასტია
Vahcuengh: Cingciuz
中文: 清朝
文言:
Bân-lâm-gú: Chheng-kok
粵語: 大清