Persie leid

Persie
fārsi
فارسی
Farsi.svg
Fārsi written in Persie (Nastaʿlīq script)
Pronunciation[fɒːɾˈsiː]
Native tae
Native speakers
45 million (2007)[6] – 60 million (2009)[5]
(110 million tot speakers)[5]
Indo-European
Early forms
Auld Persie
  • Middle Persie
Staundart forms
Wastren Persie
Dari
Dialects
  • Wastren Persie
  • Dari
  • Tajik
  • Bukhori
  • Pahlavani
  • Hazaragi
  • Aimaq
  • Judeo-Persie
  • Dehwari
  • Judeo-Tat[5]
  • Caucasian Tat[5]
  • Armeno-Tat[5]
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
Regulatit bi
  • Academy o Persie Leid an Leeteratur (Iran)
Leid codes
ISO 639-1fa
ISO 639-2per (B)
fas (T)
ISO 639-3fas – inclusive code
Individual codes:
pes – Wastern Persie
prs – Dari leid (Afghan Persie)
tgk – Tajiki
aiq – Aimaq dialect
bhh – Bukhori dialect
haz – Hazaragi dialect
jpr – Judeo-Persie
phv – Pahlavani
deh – Dehwari
jdt – Judeo-Tat
ttt – Caucasian Tat
Glottologfars1254[7]
Linguasphere
58-AAC (Wider Persie)
 > 58-AAC-c (Central Persie)
Persian Language Location Map1.png
Auries wi monie Persie speakers (wi dialects an aw)
Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.svg
  Kintras whaur Persie is an offeecial leid

Persie (local name: فارسی, Fārsi IPA: [fɒːɾˈsi]) is an Iranie leid athin the Indo-Iranie brainch o the Indo-European leids. It is widely spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan an tae some extent in Armenie, Iraq, Bahrain, an Oman.

The Persie leid, whase native names is فارسی Fārsi, Dari or Fārsi-ye-Dari (Dari Persian), can be clessifee'd linguistically as a conteenuation o Middle Persie, the offeecial releegious an leeterar leid o Sassanid Persie, itsel a conteenuation o Auld Persian, the leid o the Persiae Empire in Achaemenids era.[8] Persie is a pluricentric leid an its grammar is seemilar tae that o mony contemporar European leids.[9] The Persie leid haes been a medium for leeterar an scienteefic contreibutions tae the eastren hauf o the Muslim warld.

Persie haes haed a conseederable influence on neebourin leids, in parteecular the Turkic leids in Central Asie, Caucasus, an Anatolie, neebourin Iranie leids, as weel as Armenie, Arabic an ither leids. It haes exertit a strang influence on Sooth Asie leids an aw, specially Urdu, as weel as Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Sylheti, an Bengali.[8][9][10][11][12][13]

  • references

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Samadi, Habibeh; Nick Perkins (2012). Martin Ball; David Crystal; Paul Fletcher, eds. Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars (in Inglis). Multilingual Matters. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84769-637-3. 
  2. "IRAQ" (in Inglis). Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  3. Pilkington, Hilary; Yemelianova, Galina (2004). Islam in Post-Soviet Russia (in Inglis). Taylor & Francis. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-203-21769-6. : "Among other indigenous peoples of Iranian origin were the Tats, the Talishes and the Kurds"
  4. Mastyugina, Tatiana; Perepelkin, Lev (1996). An Ethnic History of Russia: Pre-revolutionary Times to the Present (in Inglis). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29315-3. , p. 80: "The Iranian Peoples (Ossetians, Tajiks, Tats, Mountain Judaists)"
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Windfuhr, Gernot: The Iranian Languages, Routledge 2009, p. 418.
  6. Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  7. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Farsic – Caucasian Tat". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Professor. Gilbert Lazard, : The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period (early Islamic times) by the name of Dari or Parsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc., Old Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history. It haed its origin in Fars (the true Persian kintra frae the historical point o view) an is differentiatit bi dialectical features, still easy recognisable frae the dialect prevailin in north-wastren an eastren Iran in (Lazard, Gilbert 1975, “The Rise of the New Persian Language” in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, pp. 595–632, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Richard Davis, “Persian” in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, “Medieval Islamic Civilization”, Taylor & Francis, 2006. Ppg 602-603. “The grammar of New Persian is similar to many contemporary European languages.” “Persian has, in general, confined its borrowings from Arabic to lexical items, and its morphology is relatively unaffected by the influence of Arabic, being confined to a few conventions such as (usually optional) use of Arabic plurals for Arabic-derived words (as an English speaker may use Latin plurals for Latin loan words in English)... Similarly, the core vocabulary of Persian continued to be derived from Pahlavi, but Arabic lexical items predominated for more abstract or abstruse subjects and often replaced their Persian equivalents in polite discourse.”
  10. Lazard, Gilbert, "Pahlavi, Pârsi, dari: Les langues d'Iran d'apès Ibn al-Muqaffa" in R.N. Frye, "Iran and Islam. In Memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky", Edinburgh University Press, 1971.
  11. Nushin Namazi (2008-11-24). "Persian Loan Words in Arabic". Retrieved 2009-06-01. 
  12. Classe, Olive (2000). Encyclopedia of literary translation into English. Taylor & Francis. p. 1057. ISBN 978-1-884964-36-7. Since the Arab conquest of the country in 7th century AD, many loan words have entered the language (which from this time has been written with a slightly modified version of the Arabic script) and the literature has been heavily influenced by the conventions of Arabic literature. 
  13. Ann K. S. Lambton, "Persian grammar", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press 1953. Excerpt: "The Arabic words incorporated into the Persian language have become Persianized".
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Persies
Alemannisch: Persische Sprache
አማርኛ: ፋርስኛ
aragonés: Idioma persa
العربية: لغة فارسية
مصرى: فارسى
asturianu: Idioma persa
azərbaycanca: Fars dili
تۆرکجه: فارس دیلی
башҡортса: Фарсы теле
Boarisch: Persisch
žemaitėška: Persu kalba
беларуская: Персідская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэрсыдзкая мова
български: Персийски език
भोजपुरी: फ़ारसी भाषा
brezhoneg: Perseg
bosanski: Perzijski jezik
català: Persa
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pŏ̤-sṳ̆-ngṳ̄
čeština: Perština
Чӑвашла: Перс чĕлхи
Cymraeg: Perseg
Zazaki: Farski
dolnoserbski: Persišćina
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފާރިސީ
Ελληνικά: Περσική γλώσσα
Esperanto: Persa lingvo
español: Idioma persa
euskara: Persiera
français: Persan
Nordfriisk: Persisk spriak
Frysk: Perzysk
Gaeilge: An Pheirsis
贛語: 波斯語
galego: Lingua persa
ગુજરાતી: ફારસી ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pô-sṳ̂-ngî
עברית: פרסית
Fiji Hindi: Farsi bhasa
hrvatski: Perzijski jezik
hornjoserbsce: Persišćina
հայերեն: Պարսկերեն
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Persia
íslenska: Persneska
italiano: Lingua persiana
日本語: ペルシア語
Basa Jawa: Basa Pèrsi
ქართული: სპარსული ენა
Адыгэбзэ: Парсыбзэ
қазақша: Парсы тілі
kalaallisut: Farsimiutut
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាពែក
한국어: 페르시아어
коми: Фарси
kernowek: Persek
Кыргызча: Фарс тили
лезги: Фарси
Lingua Franca Nova: Farsi (lingua)
Limburgs: Perzisch
Ligure: Lengua farsi
lumbaart: Lengua persiana
lietuvių: Persų kalba
latviešu: Persiešu valoda
मैथिली: फारसी भाषा
Malagasy: Fiteny persana
олык марий: Фарси йылме
Māori: Reo Farsi
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Persia
македонски: Персиски јазик
монгол: Перс хэл
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Parsi
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပါရှားဘာသာစကား
مازِرونی: فارسی
नेपाली: फारसी भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: पारसी भाषा
Nederlands: Perzisch
norsk nynorsk: Persisk
norsk: Persisk
occitan: Persan
پنجابی: فارسی
português: Língua persa
Runa Simi: Pharsi simi
română: Limba persană
tarandíne: Lènga persiane
русиньскый: Перьскый язык
саха тыла: Перс тыла
davvisámegiella: Persiagiella
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Perzijski jezik
Simple English: Persian language
slovenčina: Perzské jazyky
slovenščina: Perzijščina
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aPeresia
Soomaaliga: Af-Faarisi
српски / srpski: Персијски језик
Basa Sunda: Basa Pérsia
svenska: Persiska
Kiswahili: Kiajemi
ślůnski: Perskŏ gŏdka
Türkmençe: Farsi diller
Tok Pisin: Tokples Pesia
Türkçe: Farsça
татарча/tatarça: Фарсы теле
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پارس تىلى
українська: Перська мова
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fors tili
vèneto: Lengua farsi
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ba Tư
Volapük: Pärsänapük
Winaray: Pinersyano
吴语: 波斯语
მარგალური: სპარსული ნინა
ייִדיש: פערסיש
中文: 波斯语
文言: 波斯語
Bân-lâm-gú: Pho-su-gí
粵語: 波斯文