History o Bahrain
Manama wis mentioned in Islamic chronicles at least as far back as 1345. It wis conquered bi Portugal in 1521 an then bi the Persians in 1602. Syne 1783 it haes been unner the control o the
Al-Khalifa dynasty. Manama wis declared a
free port in 1958, an in 1971 it became the caipital o independent Bahrain.
The north o Bahrain’s main island, which is dominatit bi Manama the day, haes seen human activity for roughly 5,000 years, as is indicatit frae the remains aroond
Bahrain Fort. Early indwallers are aften associatit wi the historical
Dilmun Ceevilisation though the historical records o Dilmun are scanty. The islanders wur suin, housomeivver, disturbit bi a series o invaders, beginnin wi the
Assyrians durin the BC period an endin wi the Arabs. Durin these mony centuries Bahrain wis a trading post whose importance fluctuatit dependin on which empire dominatit. Manama an its indwallers wur first introduced tae Islam durin the 7t century an bi the 9t century began tae lean tae a mair conservative amaist socialist belief seestem that caused considerable friction wi the surroondin Muslim lands. The
Qarmatians, as this group wis kent, ransackt Mecca in 930 durin the sacred Hajj, killin hunders afore escapin wi the hintle revered
Black Stane. A feud wi the Baghdad-based Abbasids less nor 50 years later saw the
Qarmatians leave the toun.
The next major foreign intervention in Bahrain came at the beginnin o the 16t century when the Portuguese naval fleets arrived, swith crushin the sma local population in Manama an the surroondin auries.
Bahrain Fort wis biggit durin this era, probably tae keep oot the Persians who nivertheless managed a series o invasions as the whole island alternatit atween the Portuguese, Persians, an Omanis for the follaein twa centuries. Ance the Persians eventually forced the ither twa oot, it wis no lang afore the
Al Khalifa family appeared frae nearbi Qatar, tae take control o the whole o the island at the end o the 18t century. The new rulers, whose dynasty continues tae this day, sought protection against the Persians frae the Breetish Empire, which bi that time haed establisht its hegemony in hintle o the Middle East, an Manama entered a period o colonial influence. Colonial interest anerlie increased when ile wis discovered 30 km (19 mi) sooth o Manama in the centre o the island an first extractit in 1931. Efter Warld War II, Bahrain muived slowly towards unthirldom an eventually in 1971 the Breetish pulled oot leavin Manama in chairge o its awn affairs. This wis the beginnin o a period that haes seen it grow an flourish primarily due tae the considerable walth accumulatit through ile production an processin.