Germany (i/; German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), offeecially the Federal Republic o Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, listen (help·info)),[lower-alpha 4] is a federal pairlamentary republic in central-wastren Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an aurie o 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), an haes a lairgely temperate saisonal climate. Wi aboot 82 million indwallers, Germany is the maist populous member state o the European Union. Efter the Unitit States, it is the seicont maist popular immigration destination in the warld. Germany's caipital an lairgest metropolis is Berlin, while its lairgest conurbation is the Ruhr (main centres: Dortmund an Essen). Ither major ceeties include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf an Leipzig.
Various Germanic tribes hae inhabitit the northren pairts o modren Germany syne clessical antiquity. A region named Germanie wis documentit afore 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expandit soothwart. Beginnin in the 10t century, German territories formed a central pairt o the Haly Roman Empire. During the 16t century, northren German regions acame the centre o the Protestant Reformation.
In 1871, Germany acame a naition state when maist o the German states unified intae the Proushie-dominatit German Empire. Efter Warld War I an the German Revolution o 1918–1919, the Empire wis replaced bi the pairlamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment o the naitional socialist dictatorship in 1933 led tae Warld War II an the Holocaust. Efter a period o Allied occupation, twa German states war foondit: the Federal Republic o Germany (commonly kent as Wast Germany) an the German Democratic Republic (commonly kent as East Germany). In 1990, the kintra wis reunifee'd.
In the 21st century, Germany is a great pouer an haes the warld's fowerth-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP, as well as the fift-lairgest bi PPP. As a global leader in several industrial an technological sectors, it is baith the warld's third-lairgest exporter an importer o guids. Germany is a developit kintra wi a very heich staundart o livin susteened bi a skilled an productive society. It uphaulds a social security an universal heal care seestem, environmental pertection an a tuition-free varsity eddication.
Germany wis a foondin member o the European Union in 1993. It is pairt o the Schengen Aurie, an acame a co-foonder o the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member o the Unitit Naitions, NATO, the G8, the G20, an the OECD. The naitional militar expenditur is the 9t heichest in the warld. Kent for its rich cultural history, Germany haes been continuously the hame o influential airtists, filosofers, muisickers, sportsfowk, entrepreneurs, scientists, ingineers, an inventors.