Augustus

Augustus
1st Emperor o the Roman Empire
Statue-Augustus.jpg
The statue kent as the Augustus o Prima Porta, 1st century
Ring16 Januar 27 BC – 19 August AD 14
PredecessorNone (Empire foondit)
SuccessorTiberius, stepson bi 3rd wife
Born23 September 63 BC
Roum, Roman Republic
Dee'd19 August AD 14 (aged 75)
Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
BuirialMausoleum o Augustus, Roum
SpouseClodia Pulchra (42–40 BC)
Scribonia (40–38 BC)
Livia Drusilla (37 BC – 14 AD)
IssueJulia the Elder
Gaius Caesar (adoptive)
Lucius Caesar (adoptive)
Agrippa Postumus (adoptive)
Tiberius (adoptive)
Full name
Imperator Gaius Julius Divi Filius Caesar Octavianus Augustus
HooseJulio-Claudian Dynasty
FaitherGaius Octavius
MitherAtia Balba Caesonia

Augustus (Laitin: Imperator Caesar Divi F. Augustus,[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) wis the foonder o the Roman Empire an its first Emperor, rulin frae 27 BC til his daith in 14 AD.[note 2]

He wis born Gaius Octavius intae an auld an walthy equestrian branch o the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar wis assassinatit in 44 BC, an Octavius wis named in Caesar's will as his adoptit son an heir, then kent as Octavianus (Anglicised as Octavian). He, Mark Antony, an Marcus Lepidus formed the Seicont Triumvirate tae defeat the assassins o Caesar. Follaein thair victory at the Battle o Philippi, the Triumvirate dividit the Roman Republic amang themsels an ruled as militar dictators.[note 3] The Triumvate wis eventually torn apairt bi the competin ambeetions o its members. Lepidus wis driven intae exile an stripped o his poseetion, an Antony committit suicide follaein his defeat at the Battle o Actium bi Octavian in 31 BC.

Efter the demise o the Seicont Triumvirate, Augustus restored the ootward façade o the free Republic, wi govrenmental pouer vestit in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, an the legislative assemblies. In reality, houever, he reteened his autocratic pouer ower the Republic as a militar dictator. Bi law, Augustus held a collection o pouers grantit tae him for life bi the Senate, includin supreme militar command, an thae o tribune an censor. It teuk several years for Augustus tae develop the framewirk within which a formally republican state coud be led unner his sole rule. He rejectit monarchical teetles, an instead cried himsel Princeps Civitatis ("First Ceetizen o the State"). The resultin constitutional framewark acame kent as the Principate, the first phase o the Roman Empire.

The ring o Augustus ineetiatit an era o relative peace kent as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). The Roman warld wis lairgely free frae lairge-scale conflict for mair nor twa centuries, despite continuous wars o imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers an the year-lang ceevil war kent as the "Year o the Fower Emperors" ower the imperial succession. Augustus dramatically enlairged the Empire, annexin Egyp, Dalmatie, Pannonie, Noricum, an Raetie; expandin possessions in Africae; expandin intae Germanie; an completin the conquest o Hispanie.

Yont the frontiers, he secured the Empire wi a buffer region o client states an made peace wi the Parthian Empire throu diplomacy. He reformed the Roman seestem o taxation, developed networks o roads wi an offeecial courier seestem, established a staundin airmy, established the Praetorian Guard, creautit offeecial polis an fire-fechtin services for Roum, an rebiggit much o the ceety during his reign.

Augustus dee'd in AD 14 at the age o 75. He probably dee'd frae naitural causes, awtho thare war unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia pushioned him. He wis succeedit as Emperor bi his adoptit son (an aa stepson an umwhile son-in-law) Tiberius.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Augustus
አማርኛ: አውግስጦስ
aragonés: César Augusto
Ænglisc: Augustus
asturianu: César Augustu
Aymar aru: César Augusto
azərbaycanca: Oktavian Avqust
تۆرکجه: آقوستوس
башҡортса: Октавиан Август
Boarisch: Augustus
žemaitėška: Augosts
Bikol Central: Caesar Augustus
беларуская: Актавіян Аўгуст
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Актавіян Аўгуст
български: Октавиан Август
Bislama: Augustus
català: August
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Augustus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Augustus
Cebuano: Augusto
کوردی: ئەگوستوس
corsu: Augustu
čeština: Augustus
Cymraeg: Augustus
dansk: Augustus
Deutsch: Augustus
Zazaki: Augustus
dolnoserbski: Augustus Caesar
ދިވެހިބަސް: Augustus
English: Augustus
Esperanto: Aŭgusto Cezaro
español: Augusto
eesti: Augustus
euskara: Zesar Augusto
estremeñu: Cesa Augustu
فارسی: آگوستوس
suomi: Augustus
Võro: Augustus
føroyskt: Augustus
français: Auguste
furlan: August
Gaeilge: Ágastas
贛語: 屋大維
Hausa: Augustus
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Augustus
Hawaiʻi: Augustus
हिन्दी: ऑगस्टस
Fiji Hindi: Augustus
hrvatski: August
interlingua: Cesare Augusto
Bahasa Indonesia: Augustus
Interlingue: Augustus
Ilokano: Augusto
íslenska: Ágústus
italiano: Augusto
Patois: Agostos
Basa Jawa: Augustus
Qaraqalpaqsha: Oktavian Avgust
Kabɩyɛ: César Auguste
Kongo: Augustus
Gĩkũyũ: Augustus
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អូហ្គុសទុស
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಗಸ್ಟಸ್
kurdî: Augustus
Lëtzebuergesch: Augustus
Lingua Franca Nova: Augusto
Limburgs: Keizer Augustus
Ligure: Aogusto
lietuvių: Augustas
latgaļu: Augustus
latviešu: Oktaviāns
Basa Banyumasan: Augustus
Malagasy: Auguste
Baso Minangkabau: Augustus
македонски: Октавијан Август
മലയാളം: അഗസ്റ്റസ്
मराठी: ऑगस्टस
Bahasa Melayu: Augustus
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဩဂတ်စတက်ဆီဇာ
Dorerin Naoero: Augustus
Nāhuatl: Augustus
Napulitano: Augusto
Plattdüütsch: Augustus
Nederlands: Augustus (keizer)
norsk nynorsk: Augustus av Romarriket
norsk: Augustus
Chi-Chewa: Augustus
occitan: August
Livvinkarjala: Augustus
Oromoo: Awugustuus
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅଗଷ୍ଟସ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਗਸਟਸ ਕੈਸਰ
Piemontèis: Otavian August
پنجابی: آگسٹس
português: Augusto
Runa Simi: Augustus
rumantsch: Augustus
armãneashti: Augustus
русиньскый: Октавіан Авґуст
संस्कृतम्: आगस्टस कैसर
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱚᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱥ
sicilianu: Cèsari Augustu
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: August (rimski car)
සිංහල: ඔගස්ටස්
Simple English: Augustus
slovenčina: Octavianus Augustus
slovenščina: Gaj Avgust Oktavijan
Gagana Samoa: Aokuso Kaisara
Soomaaliga: Augustus Octavian
shqip: Augusti
српски / srpski: Октавијан Август
Seeltersk: Octavianus
Basa Sunda: Octavianus
svenska: Augustus
Kiswahili: Augusto
తెలుగు: ఆగస్టస్
Türkmençe: Oktawian Awgust
Tagalog: Cesar Augusto
Tok Pisin: Augustus Caesar
Türkçe: Augustus
татарча/tatarça: Октавиан Август
українська: Октавіан Август
اردو: آگستس
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Avgust (imperator)
vèneto: Augustus
vepsän kel’: Oktavian August
Tiếng Việt: Augustus
West-Vlams: Augustus
Volapük: Augustus
Winaray: Augustus
吴语: 奧古斯都
isiXhosa: Augustus
მარგალური: ავგუსტუსი
ייִדיש: אויגוסטוס
Yorùbá: Augustus
Zeêuws: Augustus
中文: 奥古斯都
文言: 奧古斯都
Bân-lâm-gú: Augustus
粵語: 奧古斯都