Kuchotsa mimba

Kuchotsa mimba
Magulu ndiponso kumene kwachokera zinthu
ICD/CIM-1004 002912

Mawu akuti kuchotsa mimba akutanthauza moyo wa mwana pochititsa kuti mwanayo achoke kapenaachotsedwe m'chiberekero nthawi yake isanakwane. Nthawi zina mimba imatha kuchoka yakha, ndipo zikatere amati mayi wapita padera. Nthawi zina munthu angasankhe zoti athetse moyo wa mwana wosabadwa ndipo zimenezi zikachitika, ndiye kuti wachotsa mimba. Mawu akuti kuchotsa mimba amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa nthawi imene munthu wachita kusankha yekha kuti athese moyo wa mwana wosabadwa. Ngati madokotala achotsa m'mimba mwa mayi mwana yemwe anatsala pang'ono kubadwa ndipo moyo wa mwanayo wathera pomwepo, amati "achotsa mimba mochedwa."[1]

Chifukwa cha kupita patsogolo kwa ntchito zachipatala, madokotala amatha kuchita opaleshoni kapena kupereka mankhwala kwa mayi woyembekezera kuti mimba ichoke. Mankhwala a mitundu iwiri, omwe ndi mifepristone ndi prostaglandin ndi othandiza kwambiri mofanana ndi opaleshoni pa ndondomeko yoyamba yochotsera mimba.[2][3] Ngakhale kuti kugwiritsira ntchito mankhwala kumathandiza pa ndondomeko yachiwiri yochotsera mimba,[4] opaleshoni ndi yomwe ikuoneka kuti ndi njira yabwino kwambiri.[3] Njira zolera, kuphatikizapo mapilisi ndiponso kachipangizo kotchinga m'chiberekero zingathe kuyamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito munthu akangochotsa mimba.[3] Kuchotsa mimba m'mayiko otukuka kumaonedwa kuti kuli m'gulu la njira zabwino kwambiri zachipatala ngati malamulo a dzikolo kuchotsa mimba.[5][6] Kuchotsa mimba m'njira yovomerezeka ndi achipatala sikukhala ndi mavuta alionse aakulu okhudza kaganizidwe kapena thanzi la munthu.[7] Bungwe Loona Zaumoyo Padziko Lonse likuyesetsa kuti amayi onse padziko lapansili akhale ndi mwayi wotsatira njira zachipatala zosaopsa pochotsa mimba.[8] Kuchotsa mimba m'njira yosatetezeka kumachititsa kuti amayi pafupifupi 47,000 azimwalira ndiponso[7] kuti amayi 5 miliyoni azigonekedwa m'chipatala chaka chilichonse.[9]

Chaka chilichonse, moyo wa ana osabadwa okwana pafupifupi 44 miliyoni umathetsedwa mwa kuchotsa mimba padziko lonse, ndipo theka la anthu amene amachotsa mimbayo amachita zimenezi m'njira yosatetezeka.[10] Koma kuyambira mu 2003 mpaka mu 2008, chiwerengero cha kuchotsa mimba chinasintha pang'ono,[10] pambuyo poti zaka zambiri zadutsa anthu akukanizidwa mwayi wamaphunziro okhudza kulalera ndiponso njira zolererazo zomwe zikupezeka mosavuta tsopano.[11] Template:As of Komanso amayi 40 pa 100 alionse ali ndi mwayi wothetsa moyo wamwana wosabadwa m'njira yovomerezeka ndi lamulo "popanda zoletsa".[12] Komabe, pali zifukwa zina zimene zimachititsa kuti zikhale zosatheka kuthetsa moyo wa ana ena osabadwa.[12]

Anthu anayamba kale kwambiri kuchotsa mbiri. Anthu akhala akutsatira njira zosiyanasiyana pochotsa mimba, monga kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala azitsamba, kugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zakuthwa, kuzunza mayi kuti abereke mwana wakufa, ndiponso njira za m'midzi ndipo zimenezi zakhala zikuchitika kuyambira kale kwambiri.[13] Zinthu zokhudzana ndi malamulo okhudza kuchotsa mimba, kuchuluka kwa ana osabadwa amene moyo wawo ungathetsedwe, ndponso chikhalidwe ndi chipembedzo zimasiyanasiyana m'madera osiyanasiyananso padzikoli. Zinthu zina zimene zingachititse kuti kuchotsa mimba kukhale kovomerezeka mwalamulo ndi kugonana kwa pachibale, kugwiriridwa, ngati mwana wosabadwa ali ndi mavuto aakulu, mavuto okhudza chisamaliro ndiponso zachuma kapena moyo wa mayi uli pachiopsezo.[14] M'madera ambiri padzikoli anthu kusiyana maganizopotengera zinthu mongachikhalidwe, ndiponso nkhani zokhudza malamulo. Komanso pali anthu amene sagwirizana ndi kuchotsa mimba ndipo amanena kuti mwana wosabadwayo ndi munthu ndipo ali ndi ufulu wokhala moyo ndipo amanena kuti kuchotsa mimba n'chimodzimodzi ndi kupha munthu.[15][16] Koma anthu amene amane amagwirizana ndi olimbikitsa kuchotsa mimba amanena kuti mayi ali ndi ufulu wosankha zochita ndi chilichonse chimene chili m'thupi mwake[17] ndiponso amalimbikitsa ufulu wa anthu onse.[8]

  • malifalensi

Malifalensi

  1. Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology". Contraception 81 (2): 93–6. 20103443. 10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005. 
  2. Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L; Campana, A (Nov 9, 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD002855. 22071804. 10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (Sep 2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care.". Contraception 88 (3): 350–63. 23261233. 10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027. 
  4. Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N (Jan 19, 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD005216. 21249669. 10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2. 
  5. Grimes, D. A.; Benson, J.; Singh, S.; Romero, M.; Ganatra, B.; Okonofua, F. E.; Shah, I. H. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–1919. 17126724. 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. 
  6. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. 25152259. 10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. 10.1136/bmj.f7553. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Organization, World Health (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. 
  9. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. 20085681. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet 379 (9816): 625–632. 22264435. 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. 
  11. Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September 2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends". Int Fam Plan Perspect 33 (3): 106–116. 17938093. 10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010). "Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 110: S13–16. 20451196. 10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003. 
  13. Joffe, Carole (2009). "1. Abortion and medicine: A sociopolitical history" (PDF). In MPaul, ES Lichtenberg, L Borgatta, DA Grimes, PG Stubblefield, MD Creinin. Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy (1st ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. 
  14. Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (3): 110–120. 18957353. 10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08. 
  15. Pastor Mark Driscoll (18 October 2013). "What do 55 million people have in common?". Fox News. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  16. Dale Hansen (18 March 2014). "Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  17. Sifris, Ronli Noa (2013). Reproductive Freedom, Torture and International Human Rights Challenging the Masculinisation of Torture.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 3. ISBN 9781135115227. 
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Aborsie
aragonés: Alborto
العربية: إجهاض
مصرى: اجهاض
asturianu: Albuertu
azərbaycanca: Abort
башҡортса: Аборт
žemaitėška: Abuorts
беларуская: Аборт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аборт
български: Аборт
বাংলা: গর্ভপাত
bosanski: Pobačaj
català: Avortament
کوردی: لەبەرچوون
čeština: Interrupce
Cymraeg: Erthyliad
dansk: Abort
Zazaki: Kurtaj
Ελληνικά: Έκτρωση
English: Abortion
Esperanto: Aborto
español: Aborto
eesti: Abort
euskara: Abortu
فارسی: سقط جنین
suomi: Abortti
føroyskt: Fosturtøka
français: Avortement
Frysk: Abortus
Gaeilge: Ginmhilleadh
galego: Aborto
Avañe'ẽ: Membykua
हिन्दी: गर्भपात
Fiji Hindi: Abortion
hrvatski: Pobačaj
Հայերեն: Վիժում
interlingua: Aborto
Bahasa Indonesia: Gugur kandungan
Ilokano: Alis
íslenska: Fóstureyðing
italiano: Aborto
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑎᑦᑐᖅ
日本語: 妊娠中絶
Patois: Abaashan
Basa Jawa: Aborsi
ქართული: აბორტი
Kabɩyɛ: Hɔɔ lɩzɩɣ
қазақша: Аборт
한국어: 낙태
Кыргызча: Аборт
Latina: Abortus
Lëtzebuergesch: Ofdreiwung
Limburgs: Abortus
lumbaart: Abort
lietuvių: Abortas
latviešu: Aborts
मैथिली: गर्भपतन
Malagasy: Fanalan-jaza
македонски: Абортус
മലയാളം: ഗർഭഛിദ്രം
монгол: Аборт
मराठी: गर्भपात
Bahasa Melayu: Pengguguran
Malti: Abort
नेपाली: गर्भपतन
Nederlands: Abortus
norsk nynorsk: Abort
norsk: Abort
occitan: Avortament
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଗର୍ଭପାତ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗਰਭਪਾਤ
Kapampangan: Abortion
polski: Aborcja
Piemontèis: Abòrt
پنجابی: ابورشن
português: Aborto
Runa Simi: Sulluchiy
română: Avort
русский: Аборт
русиньскый: Аборт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Abortus
සිංහල: ගබ්සාව
Simple English: Abortion
slovenčina: Interrupcia
slovenščina: Splav
chiShona: Kubvisa nhumbu
српски / srpski: Побачај
svenska: Abort
Kiswahili: Utoaji mimba
తెలుగు: గర్భస్రావం
Türkmençe: Abort
Tagalog: Pagpapalaglag
Türkçe: Kürtaj
татарча/tatarça: Аборт
українська: Аборт
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Abort
Tiếng Việt: Phá thai
Winaray: Punit
ייִדיש: אבארטאציע
Yorùbá: Ìṣẹ́yún
中文: 堕胎
Bân-lâm-gú: Jîn-kang liû-sán
粵語: 落仔