វ៉ាក់សាំង

ថ្នាំបង្ការោគវ៉ាក់សាំង (អក្សារឡាតាំង vaccine) គឺជាការរៀបចំជីវសាស្ត្រមួយដែលធ្វើឲ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវប្រព័ន្ធភាពសាុំទៅនឹង ជម្ងឺណាមួយ។ វ៉ាក់សាំង ជាទូទៅ មានផ្ទកនូវភ្នាក់ងារ that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.

Vaccines may be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine).

The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox ( Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us, from vacca, cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox. [១]


Landmarks in history of vaccines


Trends

Vaccine development has several trends: [៣]

  • Until recently,[ ] most vaccines were aimed at infants and children, but adolescents and adults are increasingly being targeted. [៣] [៤]
  • Combinations of vaccines are becoming more common; vaccines containing five or more components are used in many parts of the world. [៣] In 2013, Biofarma has released new product called Pentabio which is combination vaccine of Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B for baby/infant of Indonesia Immunization Program. [៥]
  • New methods of administering vaccines are being developed,[ ] such as skin patches, aerosols via inhalation devices, and eating genetically engineered plants. [៣]
  • Vaccines are being designed to stimulate innate immune responses, as well as adaptive. [៣]
  • Attempts are being made to develop vaccines to help cure chronic infections, as opposed to preventing disease. [៣]
  • Vaccines are being developed to defend against bioterrorist attacks such as anthrax, plague, and smallpox. [៣]
  • Appreciation for sex and pregnancy differences in vaccine responses "might change the strategies used by public health officials". [៦]
  • Scientists are now trying to develop synthetic vaccines by reconstructing the outside structure of a virus. [៧]

Principles that govern the immune response can now be used in tailor-made vaccines against many noninfectious human diseases, such as cancers and autoimmune disorders. [៨] For example, the experimental vaccine CYT006-AngQb has been investigated as a possible treatment for high blood pressure. [៩] Factors that have impact on the trends of vaccine development include progress in translatory medicine, demographics, regulatory science, political, cultural, and social responses. [១០]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Entstof
العربية: لقاح
asturianu: Vacuna
azərbaycanca: Vaksin
беларуская: Вакцына
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вакцына
български: Ваксина
བོད་ཡིག: འབྲུམ་སྨན།
bosanski: Vakcina
català: Vacuna
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĭk-mièu
کوردی: کوتاو
čeština: Vakcína
dansk: Vaccine
Deutsch: Impfstoff
Ελληνικά: Εμβόλιο
English: Vaccine
Esperanto: Vakcino
español: Vacuna
eesti: Vaktsiin
euskara: Txerto
فارسی: واکسن
suomi: Rokote
furlan: Vacine
galego: Vacina
Avañe'ẽ: Tasymombiaha
עברית: חיסון
hrvatski: Cjepivo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vaksen
magyar: Védőoltás
Bahasa Indonesia: Vaksin
íslenska: Bóluefni
italiano: Vaccino
日本語: ワクチン
Patois: Vaxiin
Basa Jawa: Vaksin
ქართული: ვაქცინა
қазақша: Вакцина
한국어: 백신
Latina: Vaccinum
lietuvių: Vakcina
latviešu: Vakcīna
македонски: Вакцина
മലയാളം: വാക്സിൻ
монгол: Вакцин
मराठी: लस
Bahasa Melayu: Vaksin
Nederlands: Vaccin
norsk nynorsk: Vaksine
norsk: Vaksine
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଟିକା
polski: Szczepionka
پنجابی: ویکسین
português: Vacina
română: Vaccin
русский: Вакцина
саха тыла: Быһыы
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vakcina
Simple English: Vaccine
slovenščina: Cepivo
shqip: Vaksina
српски / srpski: Вакцина
Kiswahili: Chanjo
తెలుగు: టీకా
тоҷикӣ: Ваксина
Türkçe: Aşı (tıp)
тыва дыл: Вакцина
українська: Вакцини
اردو: ویکسین
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vaksinalar
Tiếng Việt: Vắc-xin
Winaray: Bakuna
中文: 疫苗
Bân-lâm-gú: E̍k-chu
粵語: 疫苗