પત્તા


Some typical Anglo-American playing cards from the Bicycle brand

"ગંજીફાનાં પત્તા" મધ્યમ પ્રકારના જાડા કાગળમાંથી બનાવવામાં આવે છે. પાતળા કાર્ડ, પાતળું પ્લાસ્ટીક, જે અલગ પ્રકારની આકૃતિઓ સાથે અને રમવાના એક સેટ તરીકે વપરાતા. પત્તા ઘણુખરુ હથેળીના કદના રખાતા જેથી વપરાશ સરળ રહેતો અને ૨૦મી સદીના મધ્યથી ઘણી વખત પ્લાસ્ટીકના પણ બનાવાતા. પત્તાના એક આખ્ખા સેટને કેત, પેક અથવા ડેક કહેવાય અને ખેલાડીની પાસે એક્સાથે રહેતા પત્તાને તેમનો 'હાથ' કહેવાય છે. પત્તાનો ડેક એ ગંજીફાની ઘણી બધી રમતોમાં વપરાય છે જેમાની અમુક સાથે જુગાર પણ સંકળાયેલ હોય છે. એક્જ કદ/માપ અને સરળતાથી મળવાના આ બે કારણે તેમનો ઉપયોગ બીજી રીતે પણ થવા લાગ્યો, જેમકે, જાદુની તરકીબો, પત્તા દ્વારા ભવિષ્ય, કોઇ પ્રકારની ગુપ્ત સંજ્ઞા, બીજી રમતો અથવા પત્તાનુ ઘર બનાવવા. મુદ્રિત થયેલા ગંજીફા પહેલી વખત ડ્રેસ્ડન(જર્મની)માં વિકસાવાયા અને બનાવાયા. thin card, or thin plastic, figured with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games. Playing cards are typically palm-sized for convenient handling and since the mid 20th century have sometimes been manufactured from plastic. A complete set of cards is called a pack or deck, and the set of cards held at one time by a player during a game is commonly called their hand. A deck of cards may be used for playing a great variety of card games, some of which may also incorporate gambling. Because playing cards are both standardized and commonly available, they are often adapted for other uses, such as magic tricks, cartomancy, encryption, boardgames, or building a house of cards. The first ever printed cards were developed and crafted in Dresden, Germany.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

દરેક પત્તાનો અગ્ર ભાગ (અથવા મુખ)બીજા દરેક પત્તાથી અલગ આક્રુતિ/સંજ્ઞના હોય છે અને તેમનો ઉપયોગ રમત પ્રમાણે જુદો જુદો હોય છે. દરેક પત્તાનો પ્રુષ્ઠ ભાગ કોઇ પણ એક ડેકમાં એક સરખો જ હોય છે, જે ઘણુ઼ખરૂ એક જ રંગ અને એકસરખી આક્રુતિ વાળા હોય છે. પત્તાનો પ્રુષ્ઠ ભાગ ઘણી વખત જાહેરાત માટે પણ વપરાય છે. લગભગ બધીજ રમતોમાં પત્તાને એક ડેકમાં ગોઠવી અને તેમનો ક્રમ ચીપીને બદલી નાખવામાં આવે છે. The front (or "face") of each card carries markings that distinguish it from the other cards in the deck and determine its use under the rules of the game being played. The back of each card is identical for all cards in any particular deck, and usually of a single color or formalized design. The back of playing cards is sometimes used for advertising. For most games, the cards are assembled into a deck, and their order is randomized by shuffling.

History

Early history

A Chinese playing card dated c. 1400 AD, Ming Dynasty, found near Turfan, measuring 9.5 by 3.5 cm

"ગંજીફા ના પત્તા" ની શોધ ચીન દેશ મા થઇ હતી. લગભગ ઇસવી સન ૯ મા તેંગ શાસન દરમ્યાન(૬૧૮-૯૦૭), જયાં રાજકુમારીના મિત્રો અથવા સગાઓ પત્તાની રમત રમતાં. હવે એ પણ સુવિદિત છે કે ડોમિનોઝ અને પત્તા એ ખરેખર તો ચીન માં જ શોધાયેલ પાસાઓ નુ નવુ સ્વરુપ છે. આંકડા(બિંદુ) વાળા પાસા, જે ભુતકાળ માં ઘણા વપરાશમાં લેવાતા, તેમાં સુધારા-વધારા થતા પત્તા અને ડોમિનોઝનુ સ્વરુપ મળ્યુ(૯મી શતાબ્દિ ચીન)."</સંદર્ભ> તેંગ લેખક સુ ઇ (જેમણે " જિન્શિ" પદવી મેળવી ઇ.સ. ૮૮૫માં)નોધ્યું છે કે રાજકુમારી તોન્ગચેંગ (?-૮૭૦), જે તેંગના મહારાજા યિઝોંગ(શાસન ૮૬૦-૮૭૪) ની પુત્રી સમય પસાર કરવા વેઇ કુટુંબ/કબીલા ના સભ્યો જોડે પત્તાની રમત રમતા હતા. સોંગ શાસન(૯૬૦-૧૨૭૯)ના એક વિદ્વાન ઓયાંગ ઝિયુએ(૧૦૦૭-૧૦૭૨)યોગ્યજ નોધ્યું છે કે પત્તાની રમત તેંગ શાસનના મધ્યથી જ અસ્તિત્વમાં હતી અને લખવાના માધ્યમની તેમની શોધખોળ સાથે સંકળાયેલ હતી કાગળના વીંટાને ને બદલે પત્તાના ઉપયોગનો વિકાસ.<સંદર્ભ નામ="નીધમ ૧૩૨">. "યેઝી ગેક્સિ" નામનુ એક પુસ્તકમાં, જેની લેખિકા તેંગ સમયની હતી, તેંગ પછીના સમયના ઘણા લેખકોએ સુધારા-વધારા કર્યા હતા. as early as the 9th century during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), when relatives of a princess played a "leaf game".[૧][૨][૩] The Tang writer Su E (obtained a jinshi degree in 885) stated that Princess Tongchang (?–870), daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang (r. 860–874), played the leaf game with members of the Wei clan to pass the time.[૪] The Song Dynasty (960–1279) scholar Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) asserted that card games existed since the mid Tang Dynasty and associated their invention with the simultaneous development of using sheets or pages instead of paper rolls as a writing medium.[૫][૪] A book called Yezi Gexi was allegedly written by a Tang era woman, and was commented on by Chinese writers of subsequent dynasties.[૫]

Ancient Chinese "money cards" have four "suits": coins (or cash), strings of coins (which may have been misinterpreted as sticks from crude drawings), myriads of strings, and tens of myriads. These were represented by ideograms, with numerals of 2–9 in the first three suits and numerals 1–9 in the "tens of myriads". Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which were both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for.[૬] The designs on modern Mahjong tiles likely evolved from those earliest playing cards. However, it may be that the first deck of cards ever printed was a ચીન domino deck, in whose cards we can see all the 21 combinations of a pair of dice. In Kuei-t'ien-lu, a Chinese text redacted in the 11th century, we find that dominoes cards were printed during the Tang Dynasty, contemporary to the first printed books. The Chinese word pái (牌) is used to describe both paper cards and gaming tiles.

An Indian origin for playing cards has been suggested by the resemblance of symbols on some early European decks (traditional Sicilian cards, for example) to the ring, sword, cup, and baton classically depicted in the four hands of Indian statues.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

The time and manner of the introduction of cards into Europe are matters of dispute. The 38th canon of the council of Worcester (1240)[૭] is often quoted as evidence of cards having been known in England in the middle of the 13th century, but the games de rege et regina (on the king and the queen) there mentioned are now thought to more likely have been chess.

If cards were generally known in Europe as early as 1278 , it is very remarkable that Petrarch, in his work De remediis utriusque fortunae (On the remedies of good/bad fortunes) that treats gaming, never once mentions them. Boccaccio, Chaucer and other writers of that time specifically refer to various games, but there is not a single passage in their works that can be fairly construed to refer to cards. Passages have been quoted from various works, of or relative to this period, but modern research leads to the supposition that the word rendered cards has often been mistranslated or interpolated.

A miniature of courtiers playing cards with the king can be found in the Roman du Roy Meliadus de Leonnoys (c. 1352), produced for King Louis II of Naples.

It is likely that the precursor of modern cards arrived in Europe from the Mamelukes of Egypt in the late 1300s, by which time they had already assumed a form very close to that in use today. In particular, the Mameluke deck contained 52 cards comprising four "suits": polo sticks, coins, swords, and cups. Each suit contained ten "spot" cards (cards identified by the number of suit symbols or "pips" they show) and three "court" cards named malik (King), nā'ib malik (Viceroy or Deputy King), and thānī nā'ib (Second or Under-Deputy). The Mameluke court cards showed abstract designs not depicting persons (at least not in any surviving specimens) though they did bear the names of military officers.

A complete pack of Mameluke playing cards was discovered by Leo Mayer in the Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, in 1939[૮]; this particular complete pack was not made before 1400, but the complete deck allowed matching to a private fragment dated to the twelfth or thirteenth century. In effect it's not a complete deck, but there are cards of three different packs of the same style.[૯] There is some evidence to suggest that this deck may have evolved from an earlier 48-card deck that had only two court cards per suit, and some further evidence to suggest that earlier Chinese cards brought to Europe may have travelled to Persia, which then influenced the Mameluke and other Egyptian cards of the time before their reappearance.

It is not known whether these cards influenced the design of the Indian cards used for the game of Ganjifa, or whether the Indian cards may have influenced these. Regardless, the Indian cards have many distinctive features: they are round, generally hand painted with intricate designs, and comprise more than four suits (often as many as thirty two, like a deck in the Deutsches Spielkarten-Museum, painted in the Mewar, a city in Rajasthan, between the 18th and 19th century. Decks used to play have from eight up to twenty different suits).

Spread across Europe and early design changes

Italians playing cards, Sancai-type bowl, Northern Italy, mid-15th century.

In the late 14th century, the use of playing cards spread rapidly throughout Europe. Documents mentioning cards date from 1371 in Spain, 1377 in Switzerland, and 1380 in many locations including Florence, Paris. [૧૦][૧૧] A 1369 Paris ordinance [on gaming?] does not mention cards, but its 1377 update does. In the account books of Johanna, duchess of Brabant and Wenceslaus of Luxemburg, an entry dated May 14, 1379, reads: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters, two forms, value eight and a half moutons, wherewith to buy a pack of cards". In his book of accounts for 1392 or 1393, Charles or Charbot Poupart, treasurer of the household of Charles VI of France, records payment for the painting of three sets of cards.[૧૨]

The earliest cards were made by hand, like those designed for Charles VI; this was expensive. Printed woodcut decks appeared in the 15th century. The technique of printing woodcuts to decorate fabric was transferred to printing on paper around 1400 in Christian Europe, very shortly after the first recorded manufacture of પપેર there, while in Islamic Spain it was much older. The earliest dated European woodcut is 1418. No examples of printed cards from before 1423 survive. But from about 1418 to 1450[૧૩] professional card makers in Ulm, Nuremberg, and Augsburg created printed decks. Playing cards even competed with devotional images as the most common uses for woodcut in this period.

Most early woodcuts of all types were coloured after printing, either by hand or, from about 1450 onwards, stencils. These 15th century playing cards were probably painted.

The Master of the Playing Cards worked in Germany from the 1430s with the newly invented printmaking technique of engraving. Several other important engravers also made cards, including Master ES and Martin Schongauer. Engraving was much more expensive than woodcut, and engraved cards must have been relatively unusual.

In the 15th century in Europe, the suits of playing cards varied; typically a deck had four suits, although five suits were common and other structures are also known. In Germany, hearts, bells, leaves, and acorns became the standard suits and are still used in Eastern and Southeastern German decks today for Skat, Sheepshead, and other games. Italian and Spanish cards of the 15th century used swords, batons (or wands), cups, and coins (or rings). The Tarot, which included extra trump cards, was invented in Italy in the 15th century.

The four suits now used in most of the world - spades, hearts, diamonds, and clubs - originated in France in approximately 1480. The trèfle (club) was probably copied from the acorn and the pique (spade) from the leaf of the German suits. The names "pique" and "spade", however, may have derived from the sword of the Italian suits.[૧૪] In England, the French suits were eventually used, although the earliest decks had the Italian suits[Chatto, link not provided].(સંદર્ભ આપો)

Also in the 15th century, Europeans changed the court cards to represent European royalty and attendants, originally "king", "chevalier" (knight), and "knave" (or "servant"). In a German pack from the 1440s, Queens replace Kings in two of the suits as the highest card. Fifty-six-card decks containing a King, Queen, Knight, and Valet (from the French tarot court) were common.

Court cards designed in the 16th century in the manufacturing centre of Rouen became the standard design in England, while a Parisian design became standard in France. Both the Parisian and Rouennais court cards were named after historical and mythological heroes and heroines. The Parisian names have become more common in modern use, even with cards of Rouennais design.

Paris court card names
Modern Traditional
કાલીનો રાજા David
લાલનો રાજા Charles (possibly Charlemagne, or Charles VII, where Rachel would then be the pseudonym of his mistress, Agnès Sorel)
ચરકાટનો રાજા Julius Caesar
ફુલિનો રાજા Alexander the Great
કલીની રાણી
header 1 header 2 header 3
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2 row 1, cell 3
row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2 row 2, cell 3

| Pallas |- |Queen of Hearts | Judith |- |Queen of Diamonds | Rachel (either biblical, historical (see Charles above), or mythical as a corruption of the Celtic Ragnel, relating to Lancelot below) |- |Queen of Clubs |Argine (possibly an anagram of regina, which is Latin for queen, or perhaps Argea, wife of Polybus and mother of Argus) |- |Knave of Spades | Ogier the Dane/Holger Danske (a knight of Charlemagne) |- |Knave of Hearts | La Hire (comrade-in-arms to Joan of Arc, and member of Charles VII's court) |- |Knave of Diamonds | Hector |- |Knave of Clubs | Judas Maccabeus, or Lancelot |}

Later design changes

[[ચિત્|thumb|upright|A transformation playing card from the 1895 Vanity Fair deck]]

Playing cards have been used as vehicles for political statements. Here, a playing card of the French Revolution symbolising freedom of cult and brotherhood.

In early games the kings were always the highest card in their suit. However, as early as the late 14th century special significance began to be placed on the nominally lowest card, now called the Ace, so that it sometimes became the highest card and the Two, or Deuce, the lowest. This concept may have been hastened in the late 18th century by the French Revolution, where games began being played "ace high" as a symbol of lower classes rising in power above the royalty.(સંદર્ભ આપો) The term "Ace" itself comes from a dicing term in Anglo-Norman language, which is itself derived from the Latin as (the smallest unit of coinage). Another dicing term, trey (3), sometimes shows up in playing card games.

Corner and edge indices enabled people to hold their cards close together in a fan with one hand (instead of the two hands previously used). For cards with Latin suits the first pack known is a deck printed by Infirerra and dated 1693 (International Playing Cards Society Journal 30-1 page 34), but were commonly used only at the end of 18th century. Indices in the Anglo-American deck were used from 1875, when the New York Consolidated Card Company patented the Squeezers, the first cards with indices that had a large diffusion. However, the first deck with this innovation was the Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart in 1864.

Before this time, the lowest court card in an English deck was officially termed the Knave, but its abbreviation ("Kn") was too similar to the King ("K") and thus this term did not translate well to indices. However, from the 1600s on the Knave had often been termed the Jack, a term borrowed from the game All Fours where the Knave of trumps has this name. All Fours was considered a game of the lower classes, so the use of the term Jack at one time was considered vulgar. The use of indices, however, encouraged a formal change from Knave to Jack in English decks. In decks for non-English languages, this conflict does not exist; the French tarot deck for instance labels its lowest court card the "Valet", which is the "squire" to the Knight card (not seen in 52-card decks) as the Queen is paired with the King.

This was followed by the innovation of reversible court cards. This invention is attributed to a French card maker of Agen, main city in the Lot-et-Garonne department, that in 1745 had this idea. But the French government, which controlled the design of playing cards, prohibited the printing of cards with this innovation. In central Europe (trappola cards), Italy (tarocchino bolognese) and in Spain the innovation was adopted during the second half of 18th century. In Great Britain the deck with reversible court cards was patented in 1799 by Edmund Ludlow and Ann Wilcox. The Anglo-American pack with this design was printed around 1802 by Thomas Wheeler (International Playing Cards Society Journal XXVII-5 p. 186 and International Playing Cards Society Journal 31-1 p. 22). Reversible court cards meant that players would not be tempted to turn upside-down court cards right side up. Before this, other players could often get a hint of what other players' hands contained by watching them reverse their cards. This innovation required abandoning some of the design elements of the earlier full-length courts.

During the French Revolution, the traditional design of Kings, Queens, and Jacks became Liberties, Equalities, and Fraternities. The radical French government of 1793 and 1794 saw themselves as toppling the old regime and a good revolutionary would not play with Kings or Queens, but with the ideals of the revolution at hand. This would ultimately be reversed in 1805 with the rise of Napoleon.

In the 19th century, a type of card known as a transformation playing card became popular in Europe and America. In these cards, an artist incorporated the pips of the non-face cards into an artistic design.

Symbolism

Popular legend holds that the composition of a deck of cards has religious, metaphysical, or astronomical significance: typical numerological elements of the explanation are that the four suits represent the four seasons, the 13 cards per suit are the 13 phases of the lunar cycle, black and red are for day and night, the 52 cards of the deck (joker excluded) symbolizes the number of weeks in a year, and finally, if the value of each card is added up—and 1 is added, which is generally explained away as being for a single joker—the result is 365, the number of days in a year. If the other joker is also added, that makes 366 days, the amount of days in a leap year. The context for these stories is sometimes given to suggest that the interpretation is a joke, generally being the purported explanation given by someone caught with a deck of cards in order to suggest that their intended purpose was not gambling.[૧૫]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Speelkaart
Ænglisc: Spilcarte
العربية: ورق لعب
مصرى: كوتشينه
asturianu: Baraxa
беларуская: Ігральныя карты
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гульнёвыя карты
български: Карти за игра
বাংলা: তাস
brezhoneg: Kartoù
bosanski: Igraće karte
čeština: Hrací karta
Чӑвашла: Карт (вăйă)
dansk: Spillekort
Deutsch: Spielkarte
Ελληνικά: Τράπουλα
English: Playing card
Esperanto: Ludkarto
español: Baraja
euskara: Kartak
suomi: Pelikortit
français: Carte à jouer
贛語: 撲克
עברית: קלף משחק
हिन्दी: ताश
Fiji Hindi: Patta
hrvatski: Igraće karte
interlingua: Carta de joco
Bahasa Indonesia: Kartu remi
Iñupiak: Piannaq
íslenska: Spilastokkur
italiano: Carte da gioco
日本語: トランプ
Basa Jawa: Rèmi
ქართული: ბანქო
한국어: 플레잉 카드
Lingua Franca Nova: Cartas
lietuvių: Žaidimo korta
latviešu: Spēļu kārtis
Malagasy: Karatra
монгол: Хөзөр
मराठी: पत्ते
Bahasa Melayu: Daun terup
नेपाली: तास (खेल)
Nederlands: Speelkaart
norsk: Spillkort
polski: Karty
پنجابی: تاش
português: Baralho
română: Carte de joc
саха тыла: Хаарты
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Igraće karte
Simple English: Playing card
slovenčina: Hracia karta
slovenščina: Igralna karta
српски / srpski: Карта (игра)
svenska: Spelkort
తెలుగు: పేకముక్క
Tagalog: Baraha
українська: Колода карт
اردو: تاش پتے
Tiếng Việt: Bộ bài Tây
Winaray: Baraha
吴语: 游戏牌
中文: 遊戲牌
粵語: 遊戲牌