geometry

An illustration of Desargues' theorem, an important result in Euclidean and projective geometry

Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC.[1] By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow.[2] Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC.[3] Islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages.[4] By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, describing spaces that lie beyond the normal range of human experience.[5]

While geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, lines, planes, surfaces, angles, and curves, as well as the more advanced notions of manifolds and topology or metric.[6]

Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, architecture, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics.

Overview

Contemporary geometry has many subfields:

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Meetkunde
Alemannisch: Geometrie
አማርኛ: ጂዎሜትሪ
العربية: هندسة رياضية
aragonés: Cheometría
অসমীয়া: জ্যামিতি
asturianu: Xeometría
azərbaycanca: Həndəsə
تۆرکجه: هندسه
বাংলা: জ্যামিতি
Bân-lâm-gú: Kí-hô-ha̍k
башҡортса: Геометрия
беларуская: Геаметрыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Геамэтрыя
Bislama: Jiometri
български: Геометрия
bosanski: Geometrija
brezhoneg: Mentoniezh
буряад: Геометри
català: Geometria
Чӑвашла: Геометри
čeština: Geometrie
chiShona: Pimanyika
Cymraeg: Geometreg
dansk: Geometri
Deutsch: Geometrie
eesti: Geomeetria
Ελληνικά: Γεωμετρία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Geometrî
español: Geometría
Esperanto: Geometrio
estremeñu: Geometria
euskara: Geometria
فارسی: هندسه
Fiji Hindi: Geometry
føroyskt: Geometri
français: Géométrie
Gàidhlig: Geoimeatras
galego: Xeometría

ગુજરાતી: ભૂમિતિ

한국어: 기하학
हिन्दी: ज्यामिति
hrvatski: Geometrija
Ilokano: Heometria
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: জ্যামিতি
Bahasa Indonesia: Geometri
interlingua: Geometria
Interlingue: Geometrie
íslenska: Rúmfræði
italiano: Geometria
עברית: גאומטריה
Basa Jawa: Géomètri
ქართული: გეომეტრია
қазақша: Геометрия
Kiswahili: Jiometri
Kreyòl ayisyen: Jewometri
kurdî: Geometrî
Кыргызча: Геометрия
Latina: Geometria
latviešu: Ģeometrija
Lëtzebuergesch: Geometrie
lietuvių: Geometrija
Ligure: Geometria
Limburgs: Maetkónde
lingála: Zomɛtɛlí
Lingua Franca Nova: Jeometria
lumbaart: Geometrìa
magyar: Geometria
македонски: Геометрија
Malagasy: Jeometria
മലയാളം: ജ്യാമിതി
मराठी: भूमिती
Bahasa Melayu: Geometri
Mirandés: Geometrie
монгол: Геометр
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂျီဩမေတြီ
Nederlands: Meetkunde
नेपाली: ज्यामिति
नेपाल भाषा: रेखागणित

Nordfriisk: Geometrii
norsk: Geometri
norsk nynorsk: Geometri
Novial: Geometria
occitan: Geometria
олык марий: Геометрий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜ୍ୟାମିତି
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Geometriya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੇਖਾ ਗਣਿਤ
پنجابی: جیومیٹری
Patois: Jaamichri
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ធរណីមាត្រ
Piemontèis: Geometrìa
Plattdüütsch: Geometrie
polski: Geometria
português: Geometria
Qaraqalpaqsha: Geometriya
română: Geometrie
Runa Simi: Pacha tupuy
русиньскый: Ґеометрія
русский: Геометрия
саха тыла: Геометрия
Scots: Geometry
Seeltersk: Geometrie
shqip: Gjeometria
sicilianu: Giometrìa
Simple English: Geometry
slovenčina: Geometria
slovenščina: Geometrija
ślůnski: Geometryjo
Soomaaliga: Joomitiri
کوردی: ئەندازە
српски / srpski: Геометрија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Geometrija
Basa Sunda: Élmu ukur
suomi: Geometria
svenska: Geometri
Tagalog: Heometriya
Taqbaylit: Tanzeggit
татарча/tatarça: Геометрия
తెలుగు: రేఖాగణితం
тоҷикӣ: Геометрия
Türkçe: Geometri
Türkmençe: Geometriýa
тыва дыл: Геометрия
українська: Геометрія
اردو: ہندسہ
vèneto: Giometria
Tiếng Việt: Hình học

Winaray: Heyometriya

Xitsonga: Tinhlayo-vupimi
ייִדיש: געאמעטריע

Zazaki: Geometri
žemaitėška: Geuometrėjė