Yukon River

Yukon River
Yukon River, Whitehorse (16209595096).jpg
View of the Yukon River near Whitehorse, Yukon
Yukon watershed.png
Location of the Yukon River and watershed
Native nameKuigpak, Ooghekuhno', Tth'echu'
Location
CountryUnited States, Canada
StateAlaska
Province / TerritoryBritish Columbia, Yukon
Physical characteristics
SourceLlewellyn Glacier at Atlin Lake
 ⁃ locationAtlin District, British Columbia, Canada
 ⁃ coordinates59°10′N 133°50′W / 59°10′N 133°50′W / 59.167; -133.833
MouthBering Sea
 ⁃ location
Kusilvak, Alaska, United States
 ⁃ coordinates
62°35′55″N 164°48′00″W / 62°35′55″N 164°48′00″W / 62.59861; -164.8000024,600 m3/s (870,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 ⁃ leftWhite River, Tanana River
 ⁃ rightTagish River, Takhini River, Teslin River, Big Salmon River, Pelly River, Stewart River, Klondike River, Birch Creek, Koyukuk River
[1][2]

The Yukon River (Gwich'in: Ųųg Han or Yuk Han, Yup'ik: Kuigpak, Inupiaq: Kuukpak) is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, Canada, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory (itself named after the river). The lower half of the river lies in the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,190 kilometres (1,980 mi)[2][3] long and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta. The average flow is 6,430 m3/s (227,000 ft3/s).[1] The total drainage area is 832,700 km2 (321,500 mi2),[1] of which 323,800 km2 (126,300 mi2) is in Canada. The total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or Alberta.

The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park.[4][5] Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.

The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps, wastewater, and other sources.[6][citation needed] However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, and water quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey shows relatively good levels of turbidity, metals, and dissolved oxygen.[7] The Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers.[8]

The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data.

Name

The name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River.[9][10] The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization.[11] In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.[12] However, Yukkhana does not literally correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river.[13][14] Then, two years later, the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river.[9] White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich'in words that can be shortened to form Yukon.[10] Because the Holikachuks had been trading regularly with both the Gwich'ins and the Yup'iks,[15] the Holikachuks had been in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak [River-big], which is the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence reflects that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han [White Water River] from Gwich'in, and erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuigpak [River-big].

The Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Yukonrivier
العربية: نهر يوكون
asturianu: Ríu Yukón
azərbaycanca: Yukon çayı
تۆرکجه: یوکان چایی
বাংলা: য়ুকন নদী
Bân-lâm-gú: Yukon Hô
башҡортса: Юкон (йылға)
беларуская: Юкан (рака)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Юкан (рака)
भोजपुरी: यूकॉन नदी
български: Юкон
Boarisch: Yukon River
bosanski: Yukon (rijeka)
brezhoneg: Yukon (stêr)
català: Riu Yukon
Cebuano: Yukon River
čeština: Yukon (řeka)
Chi-Chewa: Mtsinje wa Yukon
Cymraeg: Afon Yukon
Deutsch: Yukon River
español: Río Yukón
Esperanto: Jukono
euskara: Yukon (ibaia)
français: Yukon (fleuve)
galego: Río Yukon
한국어: 유콘강
հայերեն: Յուկոն (գետ)
Bahasa Indonesia: Sungai Yukon
íslenska: Júkon-fljót
italiano: Yukon (fiume)
қазақша: Юкон
Kiswahili: Mto Yukon
Kreyòl ayisyen: Yukon (rivyè)
кырык мары: Юкон (йогы)
latviešu: Jukona (upe)
lietuvių: Jukonas (upė)
lumbaart: Yukon (fiüm)
македонски: Јукон (река)
मराठी: युकॉन नदी
Nederlands: Yukon (rivier)
日本語: ユーコン川
occitan: Yukon (riu)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yukon (daryo)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯੂਕੋਨ ਦਰਿਆ
Plattdüütsch: Yukon (Stroom)
português: Rio Yukon
română: Fluviul Yukon
русский: Юкон (река)
Simple English: Yukon River
slovenčina: Yukon (rieka)
slovenščina: Jukon (reka)
српски / srpski: Јукон (река)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Yukon (rijeka)
svenska: Yukonfloden
Tagalog: Ilog Yukon
Türkçe: Yukon Nehri
українська: Юкон (річка)
Tiếng Việt: Sông Yukon
Winaray: Salog Yukon
粵語: 育空河
中文: 育空河