Yuan dynasty

Great Yuan

大元
ᠳᠠᠢ
ᠦᠨ
ᠦᠯᠦᠰ

(Dai Ön Ulus, "Great Yuan State" in Middle Mongolian)
1271–1368
Yuan dynasty circa 1294 The situation of Goryeo was disputed[note 1]
Yuan dynasty circa 1294
The situation of Goryeo was disputed[note 1]
Provinces of Yuan in 1330
Provinces of Yuan in 1330
StatusKhagan-ruled division of the Mongol Empire
Conquest dynasty of Imperial China
CapitalKhanbaliq (Beijing)
Shangdu (summer capital)
Common languagesMongolian (Middle Mongol)
Chinese (Old Mandarin)
Religion
Buddhism (Tibetan Buddhism as de facto state religion), Mongolian Tengrism/Chinese Heaven worship, Shamanism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion, Chinese Nestorian Christianity, Roman Catholic Christianity, Judaism, Chinese Manichaeism, Islam, Legalism
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 1259–1294
Kublai Khan
• 1332–1368
Toghon Temür
Chancellor 
• 1264–1282
Ahmad Fanakati
• 1340–1355
Toqto'a
Historical eraPostclassical Era
Spring, 1206
• Formal proclamation of the Yuan dynasty[2]
5 November 1271
1268–1273
4 February 1276
19 March 1279
1351–1368
• Fall of Khanbaliq
14 September 1368
• Formation of Northern Yuan dynasty
1368–1388
Area
1310[3]11,000,000 km2 (4,200,000 sq mi)
1330[4]13,720,000 km2 (5,300,000 sq mi)
Population
• 1290
77,000,000
• 1293
79,816,000
• 1330[4]
83,873,000
• 1350
87,147,000
CurrencyPredominantly Paper Currency (Jiaochao), with a small amount of Chinese cash in use
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Song dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
Ming dynasty
Today part ofChina
Mongolia
Myanmar
North Korea
Russia
South Korea
History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE
Xia c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE
Shang c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE
Zhou c. 1046 – 256 BCE
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn
   Warring States
IMPERIAL
Qin 221–207 BCE
Han 202 BCE – 220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin 266–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern JinSixteen Kingdoms
Northern and Southern dynasties
420–589
Sui 581–618
Tang 618–907
  (Wu Zhou 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms

907–979
Liao 916–1125
Song 960–1279
  Northern SongWestern Xia
  Southern SongJin
Yuan 1271–1368
Ming 1368–1644
Qing 1636–1912
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic of China 1949–present

The Yuan dynasty (n/;[5] Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan[6] (Chinese: ; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Middle Mongolian: ᠳᠠᠢ
ᠦᠨ
ᠦᠯᠦᠰ
, Dai Ön Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"[note 2]), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style,[7] and the conquest was not complete until 1279 when the Southern Song dynasty was defeated in the Battle of Yamen. His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other Mongol khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia.[8] It was the first non-Han Chinese dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368 when the Ming dynasty defeated the Yuan forces. Following that, the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule as the Northern Yuan dynasty.[9] Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language (i.e. Mongolian) and the 'Phags-pa script.[10]

The Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven. The dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu.[note 3] In the Proclamation of the Dynastic Name,[2] Kublai announced the name of the new dynasty as Great Yuan and claimed the succession of former Chinese dynasties from the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors to the Tang dynasty.[2]

In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, and the Ilkhanate. As such, the Yuan was also sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the western khans, their subservience was nominal and each continued its own separate development.[11][12]

Name

Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty (Chinese and Mongolian).svg
"Yuan dynasty" in Chinese characters (top) and "Great Yuan State" (Yehe Yüan Ulus, a modern form) in Mongolian script (bottom)
Chinese元朝
Literal meaning"Yuan dynasty"
Dynastic name
Chinese大元
Literal meaningGreat Yuan
Alternative official full name:
ᠳᠠᠢ
ᠦᠨ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠦᠯᠦᠰ

Dai Ön Yeqe Mongɣul Ulus
Traditional Chinese大元大蒙古國
Simplified Chinese大元大蒙古国
Literal meaning"Great Yuan" (Middle Mongol transliteration of Chinese "Dà Yuán") Great Mongol State

In 1271, Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Wade–Giles: Ta-Yüan), establishing the Yuan dynasty.[6] "Dà Yuán" (大元) is from the clause "大哉乾元" (pinyin: dà zāi Qián Yuán; literally: 'Great is Qián, the Primal') in the Commentaries on the Classic of Changes section[13] regarding the first hexagram Qián ().[2] The counterpart in the Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus, also rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus. In Mongolian, Dai Ön (Middle Mongol transliteration of Chinese "Dà Yuán") was often used in conjunction with the "Yeke Mongghul Ulus" (lit. "Great Mongol State"), resulting in ᠳᠠᠢ
ᠦᠨ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠦᠯᠦᠰ
(Dai Ön Yeqe Mongɣul Ulus),[14] meaning "Great Yuan Great Mongol State".[citation needed] The Yuan dynasty is also known by westerners as the "Mongol dynasty"[15] or "Mongol Dynasty of China",[16] similar to the names "Manchu dynasty"[17] or "Manchu Dynasty of China"[18] which were used by westerners for the Qing dynasty. Furthermore, the Yuan is sometimes known as the "Empire of the Great Khan" or "Khanate of the Great Khan",[19] which particularly appeared on some Yuan maps, since Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Great Khan. Nevertheless, both terms can also refer to the khanate within the Mongol Empire directly ruled by Great Khans before the actual establishment of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Yuan-dinastie
Alemannisch: Yuan-Dynastie
العربية: مملكة يوان
asturianu: Dinastía Yuan
azərbaycanca: Yuan sülaləsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Goân-tiâu
башҡортса: Юань (династия)
беларуская: Дынастыя Юань
български: Юен
català: Dinastia Yuan
čeština: Dynastie Jüan
Deutsch: Yuan-Dynastie
español: Dinastía Yuan
Esperanto: Dinastio Yuan
euskara: Yuan dinastia
français: Dynastie Yuan
Gaeilge: Ríora Yuan
贛語:
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngièn-chhèu
한국어: 원나라
hrvatski: Dinastija Yuan
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Yuan
íslenska: Júanveldið
italiano: Dinastia Yuan
latviešu: Juaņu dinastija
lietuvių: Juan dinastija
македонски: Јуен (династија)
მარგალური: იუანიშ დინასტია
Bahasa Melayu: Dinasti Yuan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nguòng-dièu
монгол: Юань улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ယွမ်မင်းဆက်
Nederlands: Yuan-dynastie
नेपाल भाषा: युआन राजवंश
日本語: 元 (王朝)
norsk nynorsk: Yuan-dynastiet
occitan: Dinastia Yuan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yuan
پنجابی: یوآن راجٹبر
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រាជវង្សយួន
português: Dinastia Yuan
română: Dinastia Yuan
Simple English: Yuan dynasty
slovenčina: Jüan (dynastia)
српски / srpski: Династија Јуан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dinastija Yuan
svenska: Yuandynastin
Türkçe: Yuan Hanedanı
тыва дыл: Юан күрүнези
українська: Династія Юань
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يۈەن سۇلالىسى
Vahcuengh: Yienzciuz
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Nguyên
文言:
吴语: 元朝
粵語: 大元
中文: 元朝