Yemen

Republic of Yemen

الجمهورية اليمنية (Arabic)
Motto: الله، ٱلْوَطَن، ٱلثَوْرَة، ٱلْوَحْدَة (Arabic)
Allāh, al-Waṭan, ath-Thawrah, al-Waḥdah
“God, Country, Revolution, Unity”
Anthem: United Republic
(Arabic: الجمهورية المتحدة‎, translit. al-Jumhūrīyah al-Muttaḥidah)
Location of  Yemen  (green)
Location of  Yemen  (green)
Location of Yemen
CapitalSana'a (de jure)
Largest citySana'a
Official languagesArabic
Ethnic groups
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s)Yemeni, Yemenite
GovernmentUnitary provisional government
• President
Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi
Maeen Abdulmalik Saeed
Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar
Mahdi al-Mashat
Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour
LegislatureHouse of Representatives
Establishment
• North Yemen establisheda

30 October 1918
• Yemen Arab Republic established
26 September 1962
• South Yemen independenceb

30 November 1967
22 May 1990
16 May 1991
Area
• Total
527,968 km2 (203,850 sq mi) (49th)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2016 estimate
27,584,213[1] (48th)
• 2004 census
19,685,000[2]
• Density
44.7/km2 (115.8/sq mi) (160th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$39.267 billion[3]
• Per capita
$1,274[3]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$13.840 billion[3]
• Per capita
$449[3]
Gini (2014)36.7[4]
medium
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.452[5]
low · 178th
CurrencyYemeni rial (YER)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright[6]
Calling code+967
ISO 3166 codeYE
Internet TLD.ye, اليمن.
  1. From the Ottoman Empire.
  2. From the United Kingdom.

Yemen (n/ (About this soundlisten); Arabic: ٱلْيَمَن‎, translit. al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (Arabic: ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْيَمَنِيَّة‎, translit. al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah), is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres (203,850 square miles). The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 miles).[7] It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Although Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra.

Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans,[8][9][10] a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and also included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom.[11] Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests.[12] Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult.[13] Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and later, a Marxist-Leninist state. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.

Yemen is a developing country,[14] and the poorest country in the Middle East.[15] Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described by critics as a kleptocracy.[16][17] According to the 2009 International Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed.[18] In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional, religious, and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced.[19] The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state; major general Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, who controlled the largest share of the Republic of Yemen Armed Forces; and Abdullah ibn Husayn al-Ahmar, figurehead of the Islamist al-Islah party and Saudi Arabia's chosen broker of transnational patronage payments to various political players,[20] including tribal sheikhs.[21][22][23][24] The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making.[25]

It is a member of the United Nations, Arab League, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, G-77, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab Monetary Fund and the World Federation of Trade Unions.

Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment, corruption, and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life.[26] President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-man election. The total absence of central government during this transitional process propitiated the escalation of the several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthis rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh,[27][28][29] later declaring themselves in control of the country after a coup d'état; Saleh was shot dead by a sniper in Sana'a in December 2017.[30] This resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government.[31] At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016.[32]

The war has blocked food imports, leading to a famine that is affecting 17 million people.[33] The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has also caused the world's worst outbreak of cholera, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751.[34] Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April 2017.[35][34] In 2016 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid in the world with 21.2 million.[36]

Etymology

Yemen was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions as Yamnat.[37] In Arabic literature, the term al-Yaman includes much greater territory than that of the republic of Yemen. It stretches from the northern 'Asir Region in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman.[38][39] One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", and significantly plays on the notion of the land to the right (𐩺𐩣𐩬).[40] Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile.[41][42] The Romans called it Arabia Felix (happy Arabia), as opposed to Arabia Deserta (deserted Arabia).

Other Languages
Acèh: Yaman
Адыгэбзэ: Йемен
адыгабзэ: Йемен
Afrikaans: Jemen
Alemannisch: Jemen
አማርኛ: የመን (አገር)
Ænglisc: Gemen
العربية: اليمن
aragonés: Yemen
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܡܢ
arpetan: Yèmen
অসমীয়া: য়েমেন
asturianu: Yeme
Avañe'ẽ: Jemẽ
azərbaycanca: Yəmən
تۆرکجه: یمن
বাংলা: ইয়েমেন
Bân-lâm-gú: Yemen
башҡортса: Йемен
беларуская: Емен
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Емэн
भोजपुरी: यमन
Bikol Central: Yemen
български: Йемен
Boarisch: Jemen
བོད་ཡིག: ཡེ་མེན།
bosanski: Jemen
brezhoneg: Yemen
буряад: Йемен
català: Iemen
Чӑвашла: Йемен
Cebuano: Yemen
čeština: Jemen
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Yemen
chiShona: Yemen
chiTumbuka: Yemen
corsu: Yemen
Cymraeg: Iemen
dansk: Yemen
davvisámegiella: Jemen
Deutsch: Jemen
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޔަމަން
dolnoserbski: Jemen
डोटेली: यमन
eesti: Jeemen
Ελληνικά: Υεμένη
español: Yemen
Esperanto: Jemeno
estremeñu: Yemen
euskara: Yemen
فارسی: یمن
Fiji Hindi: Yemen
føroyskt: Jemen
français: Yémen
Frysk: Jemen
Gaelg: Yn Yeaman
Gagauz: Yemen
Gàidhlig: Iemen
galego: Iemen
Gĩkũyũ: Yemen
ગુજરાતી: યેમેન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: यॅमॅन
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yemen
한국어: 예멘
Hausa: Yemen
Hawaiʻi: Iemene
հայերեն: Եմեն
हिन्दी: यमन
hornjoserbsce: Jemen
hrvatski: Jemen
Ido: Yemen
Ilokano: Yemen
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ইয়েমেন
Bahasa Indonesia: Yaman
interlingua: Yemen
Interlingue: Yemen
Ирон: Йемен
isiZulu: IYemen
íslenska: Jemen
italiano: Yemen
עברית: תימן
Basa Jawa: Yaman
Kabɩyɛ: Yemenii
kalaallisut: Yemen
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಯೆಮೆನ್
Kapampangan: Yemen
ქართული: იემენი
kaszëbsczi: Jemen
қазақша: Йемен
kernowek: Yemen
Kinyarwanda: Yemeni
Kiswahili: Yemen
коми: Йемен
Kongo: Yemen
Kreyòl ayisyen: Yemèn
kurdî: Yemen
Кыргызча: Йемен
Ladino: Yemen
لۊری شومالی: یمن
Latina: Iemenia
latviešu: Jemena
Lëtzebuergesch: Jemen
лезги: Йемен
lietuvių: Jemenas
Ligure: Yemen
Limburgs: Jeme
lingála: Yeméni
Lingua Franca Nova: Iaman
Livvinkarjala: Jemen
lumbaart: Yemen
magyar: Jemen
मैथिली: यमन
македонски: Јемен
Malagasy: Yemen
മലയാളം: യെമൻ
Malti: Jemen
მარგალური: იემენი
مصرى: اليمن
مازِرونی: یمن
Bahasa Melayu: Yaman
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Yemen
Mirandés: Iémen
монгол: Йемен
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ယီမင်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Yemen
Dorerin Naoero: Yemen
Nederlands: Jemen
नेपाली: यमन
नेपाल भाषा: गणतन्त्र यमन
日本語: イエメン
Napulitano: Yemen
нохчийн: Йемен
Nordfriisk: Jemen
Norfuk / Pitkern: Yemen
norsk: Jemen
norsk nynorsk: Jemen
Novial: Yemen
occitan: Iemèn
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ୟେମେନ
Oromoo: Yaman
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yaman
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯਮਨ
पालि: यमन
پنجابی: یمن
Papiamentu: Yemen
پښتو: يمن
Patois: Yemen
Piemontèis: Yemen
Tok Pisin: Yemen
Plattdüütsch: Jemen
polski: Jemen
português: Iémen
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yemen
qırımtatarca: Yemen
română: Yemen
Runa Simi: Yaman
русиньскый: Ємен
русский: Йемен
саха тыла: Йиэмэн
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱭᱮᱢᱮᱱ
संस्कृतम्: यमन
Scots: Yemen
Seeltersk: Jemen
shqip: Jemeni
sicilianu: Yemen
සිංහල: යේමනය
Simple English: Yemen
سنڌي: يمن
SiSwati: IYemeni
slovenčina: Jemen
slovenščina: Jemen
ślůnski: Jymyn
Soomaaliga: Yemen
کوردی: یەمەن
српски / srpski: Јемен
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jemen
Basa Sunda: Yaman
suomi: Jemen
svenska: Jemen
Tagalog: Yemen
தமிழ்: யெமன்
Taqbaylit: Yaman
татарча/tatarça: Йәмән
తెలుగు: యెమన్
tetun: Iemen
тоҷикӣ: Яман
Türkçe: Yemen
Türkmençe: Ýemen
удмурт: Йемен
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Yaman
українська: Ємен
اردو: یمن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يەمەن
Vahcuengh: Yemen
vèneto: Jemen
vepsän kel’: Jemen
Tiếng Việt: Yemen
Volapük: Yämän
Võro: Jeemen
文言: 也門
West-Vlams: Jemen
Winaray: Yemen
Wolof: Yaman
吴语: 也門
ייִדיש: תימן
Yorùbá: Yemen
粵語: 也門
Zazaki: Yemen
Zeêuws: Jeem’n
žemaitėška: Jemens
中文: 也门