Yazidis

Yazidis
Êzidî
Yezidis of Jabal.jpg
Yazidis on the mountain of Sinjar, Iraqi–Syrian border, 1920s
Total population
500,000–1,200,000[1][2][3]
Regions with significant populations
Ezidkhan
(name of the settlement areas of the Yazidis called Ezidkhan or Êzîdxan by them)
Listed by countries
 Iraq650,000[4]
 Germany100,000–120,000[5][6][7]
 Syria70,000[8][9]
 Russia40,586 (2010 census)[10]
 Armenia35,272 (2011 census)[11]
 Georgia12,174 (2014 census)[12]
 Sweden7,000[7]
 Hungary118 (2011 census)[13]
 Belarus45 (2009 census)[14]
 Artsakh16 (2015 census)[15]
 Australia15 (2016 census)[12]
 Latvia4 (2018 official statistics)[16]
 South Ossetia1 (2015 census)[17]
Religions
Yazidism (also called Sharfadin by them)[18][19]
Languages
Kurmanji (also called Ezdiki by them)[20][21][22]
Yazidism (also Sharfadin)
TypeSyncretic
ClassificationEthnoreligious group
MirTahseen Said
Baba SheikhKhurto Hajji Ismail
HeadquartersAin Sifni
Other name(s)Êzidî, Yazdani

The Yazidis, Yezidis (z/ (About this soundlisten) ZEE-deez) or sometimes Ezidis (Kurmanji: Êzîdî, IPA: [eːzɪˈdiː]), are a mostly Kurmanji-speaking religious minority,[23][24][25] indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (northern Iraq, northern Syria and southeastern Turkey) who are strictly endogamous.[26] Some of them identify themselves as ethnic Kurds but most of them identify themselves as a distinct ethno-religious group.[27][28][29] However in Iraq and Armenia they are recognized as a distinct ethnic group.[30][31] Their settlement areas are also known as Ezidkhan or Êzîdxan (meaning: "Land of the Yazidis") and are also called so by them.

Many Yazidis consider Yazidism both an ethnic and a religious identity.[27][32] Their religion, Yazidism, is also called Sharfadin by them.[19] It is a monotheistic religion and have elements of ancient mesopotamian religions[33][34] and also combines aspects of several monotheistic religions: Christianity, Judaism and Islam.[26][35][36][37][38] Yazidism is not linked to Zoroastrianism but the PKK declared the Yazidis to be Zoroastrians.[39] They speak Kurmanji and it is called Ezdiki (meaning: "the Yazidi language") by them.[25][21][22] The Yazidis in Bashiqa and Bahzani speak Arabic as their mother language.[40] Yazidis who marry non-Yazidis are automatically considered to be converted to the religion of their spouse and therefore are not permitted to call themselves Yazidis.[41][42][43] The Yazidis in Iraq live primarily in the Nineveh Province, part of the disputed territories of northern Iraq.[44][45]

Additional communities in Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, Iran and Syria have been in decline since the 1990s as a result of significant migration to Europe, especially to Germany.[46] According to the UNCHR reports, it is disputed, even within the community, as well as among Kurds, whether Yazidis are ethnically Kurds or form a distinct ethnic group.[47][48][49]

The Yazidis are monotheists,[41][50][51][52] believing in God as creator of the world, which he has placed under the care of seven holy beings or angels, the chief of whom is Melek Taus, the Peacock Angel. The Peacock Angel, as world-ruler, causes both good and bad to befall individuals, and this ambivalent character is reflected in myths of his own temporary fall from God's favour, before his remorseful tears extinguished the fires of his hellish prison and he was reconciled with God.[53]

This belief has been linked by some people to Sufi mystical reflections on Iblis, who also refused to prostrate to Adam, despite God's express command to do so.[54] Because of this similarity to the Sufi tradition of Iblis, some followers of other monotheistic religions of the region identify the Peacock Angel with their own unredeemed evil spirit Satan,[55]:29[41] which has incited centuries of persecution of the Yazidis as "devil worshippers".[56][57] Persecution of Yazidis has continued in their home communities within the borders of modern Iraq, under fundamentalist Sunni Muslim revolutionaries.[58]

Beginning in August 2014, the Yazidis were targeted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in its campaign to rid Iraq and its neighbouring countries of non-Islamic influences.[59]

Demographics

Yazidi leaders and Chaldean clergymen meeting in Mesopotamia, 19th century

Historically, the Yazidis lived primarily in communities located in present-day Iraq, Turkey, and Syria and also had significant numbers in Armenia, Georgia, and Iran. However, events since the end of the 20th century have resulted in considerable demographic shift in these areas as well as mass emigration.[7] As a result, population estimates are unclear in many regions, and estimates of the size of the total population vary.[1]

Iraq

The majority of the Yazidi population lives in Iraq, where they make up an important minority community.[1] Estimates of the size of these communities vary significantly, between 70,000 and 500,000. They are particularly concentrated in northern Iraq in the Nineveh Province. The two biggest communities are in Shekhan, northeast of Mosul and in Sinjar, at the Syrian border 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of Mosul. In Shekhan is the shrine of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir at Lalish. In the early 1900s most of the settled population of the Western Desert were Yazidi.[60] During the 20th century, the Shekhan community struggled for dominance with the more conservative Sinjar community.[1] The demographic profile has probably changed considerably since the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003 and the fall of Saddam Hussein's government.[1]

Yazidi new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Two Yazidi men at the new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017

According to the Human Rights Watch, Yazidis were under the Arabisation process of Saddam Hussein between 1970 and 2003. In 2009, some Yazidis who had previously lived under the Arabisation process of Saddam Hussein complained about the political tactics of the Kurdistan Regional Government that were intended to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds.[61][62] A report from Human Rights Watch (HRW), in 2009, declares that to incorporate disputed territories in northern Iraq—particularly the Nineveh province—into the Kurdish region, the KDP authorities had used KRG's political and economical resources to make Yazidis identify themselves as Kurds. The HRW report also criticises heavy-handed tactics."[63]

While geographically located in Kurdish regions, Yazidi do not self-identify as Kurdish.[64] There has been a dispute as to whether Yazidi are Kurdish.[41]:48[65]:219[66] Additionally, the Soviet Union considered the Yazidis to be Kurds, as does Sharaf Khan Bidlisi's Sheref-nameh of 1597, which cites seven of the Kurdish tribes as being at least partly Yazidi, and Kurdish tribal confederations as containing substantial Yazidi sections.[67] Modern Yazidi communities disagree with this classification.

According to the UNCHR reports, it is disputed, even among the community itself as well as among Kurds, whether Yazidis are ethnically Kurds or form a distinct ethnic group.[68]

The Yazidis' cultural practices are observably Kurdish, and almost all speak Kurmanji (Northern Kurdish).[69]

Syria

Yazidis in Syria live primarily in two communities, one in the Al-Jazira area and the other in the Kurd-Dagh.[1] Population numbers for the Syrian Yazidi community are unclear. In 1963, the community was estimated at about 10,000, according to the national census, but numbers for 1987 were unavailable.[70] There may be between about 12,000 and 15,000 Yazidis in Syria today,[1][71] though more than half of the community may have emigrated from Syria since the 1980s.[7] Estimates are further complicated by the arrival of as many as 50,000 Yazidi refugees from Iraq during the Iraq War.[7]

Yazidi men

Georgia

The Yazidi population in Georgia has been dwindling since the 1990s, mostly due to economic migration to Russia and the West. According to a census carried out in 1989, there were over 30,000 Yazidis in Georgia; according to the 2002 census, however, only around 18,000 Yazidis remained in Georgia. However, by other estimates, the community fell from around 30,000 people to fewer than 5,000 during the 1990s.[7] Today they number as little 6,000 by some estimates, including recent refugees from Sinjar in Iraq, who fled to Georgia following persecution by ISIL.[72] On 16 June 2015, Yazidis celebrated the opening of a temple and a cultural centre named after Sultan Ezid in Varketili, a suburb of Tbilisi. This is the third such temple in the world after those in Iraqi Kurdistan and Armenia.[72]

Armenia

According to the 2011 census, there are 35,272 Yazidis in Armenia, making them Armenia's largest ethnic minority group.[73] Ten years earlier, in the 2001 census, 40,620 Yazidis were registered in Armenia.[74] They form majority in Armavir province of Armenia. Media have estimated the number of Yazidis in Armenia to be between 30,000 and 50,000. Most of them are the descendants of refugees who fled to Armenia in order to escape the persecution that they had previously suffered during Ottoman rule, including a wave of persecution which occurred during the Armenian Genocide, when many Armenians found refuge in Yazidi villages.[75]

The Ziarat temple in Aknalich, Armenia

There is a Yazidi temple called Ziarat in the village of Aknalich in the region of Armavir. Construction on a new Yazidi temple in Aknalich, called "Quba Mere Diwan," is underway. The temple is slated to become the largest Yazidi temple in the world and is privately funded by Mirza Sloian, a Yazidi businessman based in Moscow who is originally from the Armavir region.[76]

Turkey

Yazidi men in Mardin, Turkey, late 19th century

The Kurdish Yazidi community of Turkey declined precipitously during the 20th century. By 1982, the community had decreased to about 30,000, and in 2009 there were fewer than 500. Most of them have immigrated to Europe, particularly Germany; those who remain reside primarily in their former heartland of Tur Abdin.[1]

Western Europe

This mass emigration has resulted in the establishment of large Yazidi diaspora communities abroad. The most significant of these is in Germany, which now has a Yazidi community of more than 100,000 living primarily in Hannover, Bielefeld, Celle, Bremen, Bad Oeynhausen, Pforzheim and Oldenburg.[46] Most are from Turkey and, more recently, Iraq and live in the western states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony.[1] Since 2008, Sweden has seen sizeable growth in its Yazidi emigrant community, which had grown to around 4,000 by 2010,[7] and a smaller community exists in the Netherlands.[1] Other Yazidi diaspora groups live in Belgium, Denmark, France, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Australia; these have a total population of probably less than 5,000.[1]

Feleknas Uca, a Yazidi Member of the European Parliament for Germany's Party of Democratic Socialism, was the world's only Yazidi parliamentarian until the Iraqi legislature was elected in 2005. European Yazidis have contributed to the academic community, such as Khalil Rashow in Germany and Jalile Jalil in Austria.[citation needed]

In May 2012, four members of a Yazidi family living in Detmold, Germany were convicted for having murdered their sister in a so-called "honour killing" and sentenced to terms ranging from four-and-a-half years to life in prison. The victim was 18-year-old Arzu Özmen (also spelled Ozmen outside Germany), who fell in love with a German journeyman baker and ran away from her family, violating the exogamy taboo. In November 2011, her siblings abducted her, and brother Osman killed her with two shots in the head.[77]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Jesiede
Alemannisch: Jesiden
العربية: يزيدية
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܝܙܝܕܝܐ
অসমীয়া: য়াজিদি
azərbaycanca: Yezidilər
تۆرکجه: یزیدلیلر
বাংলা: ইয়াজিদি
беларуская: Езіды
български: Езиди
Чӑвашла: Езидсем
čeština: Jezídové
Deutsch: Jesiden
eesti: Jeziidid
Ελληνικά: Γιαζίντι
Esperanto: Jezidoj
euskara: Yezidi
فارسی: یزیدیان
français: Yézidis
galego: Pobo iézidi
گیلکی: ایزدی‌ئن
한국어: 야지디
հայերեն: Եզդիներ
हिन्दी: यज़ीदी
hrvatski: Jezidi
Bahasa Indonesia: Yazidi
íslenska: Jasídar
עברית: יזידים
Basa Jawa: Wong Yasidhi
ქართული: იეზიდები
kurdî: Êzdîtî
latviešu: Jazīdi
lietuvių: Jazidai
Lingua Franca Nova: Eziditis
magyar: Jeziditák
മലയാളം: യസീദി
მარგალური: იეზიდეფი
مصرى: يزيديين
مازِرونی: ایزدیون
Bahasa Melayu: Yazidi
Nederlands: Jezidi's
нохчийн: Езидаш
occitan: Yezidis
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯਜ਼ੀਦੀ
português: Yazidi
română: Yazidiți
русский: Езиды
Scots: Yazidis
Simple English: Yazidi
slovenčina: Jazídíja
Soomaaliga: Yazidi (yasiidi)
کوردی: ئێزیدی
српски / srpski: Језиди
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jazidi
Basa Sunda: Yazidi
suomi: Jesidit
svenska: Yazidier
Türkçe: Yezîdîler
українська: Єзиди
اردو: یزیدی
Tiếng Việt: Người Yazidi
文言: 雅茲迪
粵語: 雅茲迪人
Zazaki: Yezıdi
中文: 雅兹迪