Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
新疆维吾尔自治区
Autonomous region
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese新疆维吾尔自治区
(Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū)
 • AbbreviationXJ /   (Pinyin: Xīn)
 • Uyghurشىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
 • Uyghur transl.Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni)
Map showing the location of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Map showing the location of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Coordinates: 41°N 85°E / 41°N 85°E / 41; 85) (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

Xinjiang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ; SASM/GNC: Xinjang; Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; formerly romanised as Sinkiang), officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region[8] (XUAR), is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles).[1] Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun, and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang also borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, and it is currently China's largest natural gas-producing region.

It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakhs, Hui, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Mongols and Russians.[9] More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as "Chinese Turkestan".[10] Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.[11]

With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory. The territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century; which was later replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union, and also promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the separatist conflict and radical Islam influence has plagued the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.[12][13]

Names

Xinjiang
Xinjiang (Chinese characters).svg
"Xīnjiāng" in Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese新疆
Hanyu PinyinXīnjiāng
PostalSinkiang
Literal meaning"the New Frontier from the interior region"
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Simplified Chinese新疆维吾尔自治区
Traditional Chinese新疆維吾爾自治區
Hanyu PinyinXīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
PostalSinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
Шиньжян Уйгурын өөртөө засах орон
Mongolian script ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ
ᠮᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ
ᠮᠤᠨ
ᠮᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ᠮᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ
ᠮᠣᠷᠤᠨ
Uyghur name
Uyghur
شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
Russian name
RussianСиньцзян
RomanizationSin'czjan
Kazakh name
Kazakhشينجياڭ ۇيعۇر اۆتونوميالى رايونى
Шыңжаң Ұйғыр аутономиялық ауданы
Shyńjań Uıǵyr aýtonomııalyq aýdany
Kyrgyz name
Kyrgyzشئنجاڭ ۇيعۇر اپتونوم رايونۇ
Шинжаң-Уйгур автоном району
Şincañ-Uyğur avtonom rayonu
Oirat name
OiratЗуунгар
Zuungar

Under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu (西域), meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han dynasty established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate (西域都護府) in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road.[14] The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi (磧西). Qi refers to the Gobi Desert while Xi refers to the west. The Tang Dynasty had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate (安西都護府) in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu (準部, "Dzungar region") and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang (回疆, "Muslim Frontier") before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang", later simplified as "Xinjiang".

The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many names in earlier times including "Western Regions",[15] Khotan, Khotay, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay (it was eastern part of Chagatai Khanate), Moghulistan ("land of the Mongols"), Kashgaria, Altishahr ("the six cities" of the Tarim), Little Bokhara and Serindia (due to Indian cultural influence).[16]

The current name "Xinjiang", which literally means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned" (故土新歸), or the new old land. The term was also given to other similar areas, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Xiyu Xinjiang (Chinese: 西域新疆; literally: "Western Regions' New Frontier") and Gansu Xinjiang (Chinese: 甘肅新疆; literally: "Gansu Province's New Frontier", especially for present-day eastern Xinjiang).[17]

The name "East Turkestan" was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829.[a] "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, as modern Xinjiang area with Dzungaria being excluded.

In 1955, Xinjiang province was renamed Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The name that was originally proposed was simply "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers. It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region".[19]

Other Languages
Acèh: Xinjiang
Afrikaans: Xinjiang
አማርኛ: ሢንጅያንግ
العربية: سنجان
aragonés: Xīnjiāng
asturianu: Sinkiang
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сіньцьзян-Уйгурскі аўтаномны раён
भोजपुरी: जिनजियांग
brezhoneg: Xinjiang
català: Xinjiang
čeština: Sin-ťiang
Cymraeg: Xinjiang
dansk: Xinjiang
davvisámegiella: Nuorta-Turkestan
Deutsch: Xinjiang
dolnoserbski: Ujgurska
eesti: Xinjiang
Ελληνικά: Σιντσιάνγκ
español: Sinkiang
Esperanto: Ŝjinĝjiango
euskara: Xinjiang
føroyskt: Xinjiang
français: Xinjiang
Frysk: Sinkiang
Gaeilge: Xinjiang
Gaelg: Xinjiang
galego: Xinjiang
贛語: 新疆
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sîn-kiông
хальмг: Шинҗән
हिन्दी: शिंजियांग
hornjoserbsce: Ujgurska
hrvatski: Xinjiang
Bahasa Indonesia: Xinjiang
interlingua: Xinjiang
íslenska: Xinjiang
italiano: Xinjiang
עברית: שינג'יאנג
Basa Jawa: Xinjiang
ქართული: სინძიანი
Ladino: Sinkiang
Latina: Xinjiang
latviešu: Siņdzjana
lietuvių: Sindziangas
Malagasy: Xinjiang
മലയാളം: സിൻജിയാങ്
Bahasa Melayu: Xinjiang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sĭng-giŏng
Nederlands: Xinjiang
norsk: Xinjiang
norsk nynorsk: Xinjiang
Novial: Xinjiang
occitan: Xinjiang
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sinszyan-Uygʻur muxtor rayoni
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਿਨਚਿਆਂਙ
پنجابی: شینجیانگ
polski: Sinciang
português: Xinjiang
română: Xinjiang
Runa Simi: Sinkiyan Uyq'ur
саха тыла: Синдьээҥ
Scots: Xinjiang
shqip: Sinkiang
sicilianu: Xinjiang
Simple English: Xinjiang
slovenčina: Sin-ťiang
ślůnski: Siynciyan
српски / srpski: Синкјанг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Xinjiang
Basa Sunda: Sinjiang
suomi: Sinkiang
svenska: Xinjiang
Tagalog: Xinjiang
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Xinjiang Uyghur
اردو: سنکیانگ
vèneto: Xinjiang
Tiếng Việt: Tân Cương
Winaray: Xinjiang
粵語: 新疆