Xiamen

Xiamen
厦门市
Sub-provincial city
From top: Xiamen's CBD, Xiamen University, colonial houses on Gulangyu Island, South Putuo Temple, beach on Gulangyu Island, and Haicang Bridge
From top: Xiamen's CBD, Xiamen University, colonial houses on Gulangyu Island, South Putuo Temple, beach on Gulangyu Island, and Haicang Bridge
Motto(s): 温馨城市·海上花园 (Comfortable city, oceanfront garden)
Location of Xiamen City jurisdiction in Fujian
Location of Xiamen City jurisdiction in Fujian
Xiamen is located in China
Xiamen
Xiamen
Location in China
Coordinates: 24°28′47.41″N 118°05′21.91″E / 24°28′47.41″N 118°05′21.91″E / 24.4798361; 118.0894194
Country China
Province Fujian
County-level
divisions
6 districts
Government
 • Party Secretary Pei Jinjia
 • Mayor Zhuang Jiahan
Area
 •  Sub-provincial city 1,699.39 km2 (656.14 sq mi)
 • Urban 281.6 km2 (108.7 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,217.98 km2 (1,242.47 sq mi)
Population ( 2010)
 •  Sub-provincial city 3,531,347 [1]
 •  Urban 1,861,289 [2]
 •  Metro 5,114,758
 • Major nationalities Han: 96%
Manchu: 2%
Hui: 2%
Mongolian: 0.3%
Time zone China Standard ( UTC+8)
Postal code 361000
Area code(s) 592
GDP 2012
 - Total CNY 301.816 billion ( USD 44.79 billion)
 - Per capita CNY 77,392 (USD 12,260)
 - Growth Increase 12.1%
License plate prefixes D
Language Amoy Hokkien
Website www.xm.gov.cn
Xiamen
Xiamen (Chinese characters).svg
"Xiamen" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 厦门
Traditional Chinese 廈門
Hokkien POJ Ē-mn̂g or Ē-mûiⁿ
Postal Amoy
ɔɪ/ [3]
Literal meaning "Mansion Gate" [4]

Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian, China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away.

Xiamen Island was considered to possess one of the world's great natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhou's harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to foreign trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842. Under the Qing, both before and after the war, there was a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern Fujian who spread Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore, Malaysia (especially in Penang), Indonesia ( Medan and Riau Province) and the Philippines. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamen's educational and cultural institutions. As part of China's Opening Up Policy under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen became one of the original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s. Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the city's expansion.

The city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and colonial architecture, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.

Name

The statue of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) on Gulangyu Island.

The area around Xiamen Bay appears as Tong'an in some Han records. Xiamen Island was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976. It received its present name from the Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming. [5] The name was formerly written using the Chinese characters meaning "Lower Gate". When its port prospered under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning "Mansion Gate". Xiamen is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters' pronunciation in Mandarin. It has also been romanized as Hiamen. [6] The former English name "Amoy" was based on the same name's pronunciation in the Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien, Ē-mûi.

Xiamen was also named Siming ("Remembering the Ming") for a few years (1656–c. 1661) during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga. The Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxinga's name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912. The name Xiamen was later restored again[ when?] but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Xiamen
العربية: شيامن
Bân-lâm-gú: Ē-mn̂g-chhī
български: Сямън
català: Xiamen
čeština: Sia-men
dansk: Xiamen
Deutsch: Xiamen
eesti: Xiamen Shi
Ελληνικά: Σιαμέν
español: Xiamen
Esperanto: Sjamen
euskara: Xiamen
فارسی: شیامن
français: Xiamen
galego: Xiamen
Gĩkũyũ: Xiamen
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ha-mùn-sṳ
한국어: 샤먼 시
Հայերեն: Սյամին
Bahasa Indonesia: Xiamen
italiano: Xiamen
עברית: שיאמן
Kapampangan: Xiamen
ქართული: სიამინი
lietuvių: Siamenas
magyar: Hsziamen
Malagasy: Xiamen
Bahasa Melayu: Xiamen
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Â-muòng
Nederlands: Xiamen
日本語: 廈門市
norsk: Xiamen
norsk nynorsk: Xiamen
پنجابی: شیامن
polski: Xiamen
português: Xiamen
Runa Simi: Hiyamin
русский: Сямынь
Scots: Xiamen
shqip: Siamen
српски / srpski: Сјамен
suomi: Xiamen
svenska: Xiamen
Tagalog: Xiamen
Türkçe: Xiamen
українська: Сямень
اردو: شیامین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شيامېن شەھىرى
Tiếng Việt: Hạ Môn
文言: 廈門市
Winaray: Xiamen
吴语: 厦门市
粵語: 廈門
中文: 厦门市