Xhosa people

Xhosa
AmaXhosa
Total population
8,104,752 (2011 Census)
Regions with significant populations

Eastern Cape: 5,092,152
Western Cape: 1,403,233
Gauteng: 796,841
Free State: 201,145
KwaZulu-Natal: 340,832

(2001 estimates 1)
Languages
Xhosa (many also speak Zulu, English, and/or Afrikaans)
Religion
traditional African religions, Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Zulu, Swati and Southern and Northern Ndebele people
Person umXhosa
People amaXhosa
Language isiXhosa

The Xhosa people (English: ə/ or ə/; [1] [2] [3] Xhosa pronunciation:  [kǁʰɔ́ːsa]) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. There is a small but significant Xhosa (Mfengu) community in South Africa with its language, Xhosa, being a recognized South African national language. [4] [5]

The Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with related yet distinct heritages. The main tribes are AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhabe, ImiDange, ImiDushane, and AmaNdlambe. In addition, there are other tribes found near or amongst the Xhosa people such as AbaThembu, AmaBhaca, AmaMpondo, AmaMpondomise and AmaQwathi that are distinct and separate tribes which have adopted the Xhosa language and the Xhosa way of life. [6]

The name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader and King called uXhosa. There is also a fringe theory that, in fact the King's name which has since been lost amongst the people was not Xhosa, but that "xhosa" was a name given to him by the San and which means "fierce" or "angry" in Khoisan languages. The Xhosa people refer to themselves as the AmaXhosa, and to their language as isiXhosa.

Presently approximately 8 million Xhosa are distributed across the country, and the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous home language, after the Zulu language, to which Xhosa is closely related. The pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely; Transkei and Ciskei, now both a part of the Eastern Cape Province where most Xhosa remain. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town (eKapa in Xhosa), East London (eMonti), and Port Elizabeth (eBhayi).

As of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers, approximately 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 1 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). [7]

History

The Xhosa are part of the South African Nguni migration which slowly moved south from the region around the Great Lakes, displacing the original Khoisan hunter gatherers of Southern Africa.

Xhosa people were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, and occupied much of eastern South Africa from around the Port Elizabeth area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban. [6]

Xhosa people, 1848

The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812 the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War.

In the years following, many tribes found in the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natal, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering". The Xhosa-speaking received these scattered tribes and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions. The AmaXhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengu, meaning wanderers, and were made up of tribes such as the amaBhaca, ama Bhele, amaHlubi, Zizi and Rhadebe. These newcomers came to speak Xhosa and are sometimes considered to be Xhosa.

Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856–1858. Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, and less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy.[ citation needed]

Some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people.[ citation needed] That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Xhosas
العربية: كوسيون
беларуская: Коса
български: Кхоса
brezhoneg: Xhosa (pobl)
català: Xoses
čeština: Xhosové
Cymraeg: Xhosa (pobl)
dansk: Xhosa
Deutsch: Xhosa (Volk)
Ελληνικά: Κόσα
español: Xhosa
Esperanto: Kosoj
euskara: Xhosa
français: Xhosa (peuple)
galego: Pobo xosa
한국어: 코사족
hrvatski: Xhosa
isiXhosa: AmaXhosa
italiano: Xhosa
Kiswahili: Waxhosa
кырык мары: Косавлӓ
лакку: Коса
latviešu: Kosi
Nederlands: Xhosa (volk)
日本語: コサ人
norsk: Xhosa
norsk nynorsk: Xhosaer
polski: Xhosa
português: Xhosa
русский: Коса (народ)
Scots: Xhosa fowk
Simple English: Xhosa people
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Xhosa
suomi: Xhosat
svenska: Xhosa (folk)
українська: Коса (народ)
中文: 科沙人