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|This page in a nutshell: Cite |
A citation or reference in an article usually has two parts. In the first part, each section of text that is either based on, or quoted from, an outside source is marked as such with an
This page explains how to place and format both parts of the citation. Each article should use one citation method or style throughout. If an article already has citations, preserve consistency by using that method or seek consensus on the talk page before changing it (the principle is reviewed at § Variation in citation methods). While you should try to write citations correctly, what matters most is that you provide enough information to identify the source. Others will improve the formatting if needed. See "
By citing sources for Wikipedia content, you enable users to
In particular, sources are required for material that is
Citations are especially desirable for statements about living persons, particularly when the statements are contentious or potentially defamatory. In accordance with the
For an image or other media file, details of its origin and copyright status should appear on its
Citations are not used on
Listed below is the information that a typical inline citation or general reference will provide, though other details may be added as necessary. This information is included in order to identify the source, assist readers in finding it, and (in the case of inline citations) indicate the place in the source where the information is to be found. (If an article uses parenthetical referencing or short citations, then the inline citations will refer to this information in abbreviated form, as described in the relevant sections above.)
Citations for books typically include:
Citations for individually authored chapters in books typically include:
In some instances, the
Citations for journal articles typically include:
Citations for newspaper articles typically include:
Citations for World Wide Web pages typically include:
Citations for sound recordings typically include:
Do not cite an entire body of work by one performer. Instead, make one citation for each work your text relies on.
Citations for films, TV episodes, or video recordings typically include:
When citing lengthy sources, you should identify which part of a source is being cited.
Specify the page number or range of page numbers. Page numbers are not required for a reference to the book or article as a whole. When you specify a page number, it is helpful to specify the version (date and edition for books) of the source because the layout, pagination, length, etc. can change between editions.
If there are no page numbers, whether in
In some works, such as plays and ancient works, there are standard methods of referring to sections, such as "Act 1, scene 2" for plays and
Specify the time at which the event or other point of interest occurs. Be as precise as possible about the version of the source that you are citing; for example, movies are often released in different editions or "cuts". Due to variations between formats and playback equipment, precision may not be accurate in some cases. However, many government agencies do not publish minutes and transcripts but do post video of official meetings online; generally the subcontractors who handle audio-visual are quite precise.
A citation ideally includes a link or ID number to help editors locate the source. If you have a URL (web page) link, you can add it to the title part of the citation, so that when you add the citation to Wikipedia the URL becomes hidden and the title becomes clickable. To do this, enclose the URL and the title in square brackets—the URL first, then a space, then the title. For example:
''[http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol66/mono66-7.pdf IARC Monographs On The Evaluation Of Carcinogenic Risks To Humans – Doxefazepam]''. International Agency For Research On Cancer (IARC). 66: 97–104. 13–20 February 1996.
For web-only sources with no publication date, the "Retrieved" date (or the date you accessed the web page) should be included, in case the web page changes in the future. For example: Retrieved 15 July 2011 or you can use the
You can also add an ID number to the end of a citation. The ID number might be an
If your source is not available online, it should be available in reputable libraries, archives, or collections. If a citation without an external link is challenged as unavailable, any of the following is sufficient to show the material to be reasonably available (though not necessarily
Links to long PDF documents can be made more convenient by taking readers to a specific page with the addition of
#page=n to the document URL, where
n is the page number. For example, using
http://www.domain.com/document.pdf#page=5 as the citation URL displays page five of the document in any PDF viewer that supports this feature. If the viewer or browser does not support it, it will display the first page instead.
These can be added in several ways (with and without citation templates):
to properly formatted footnote or Harvard-style references. Written in
Rubyand requires a working installation with basic libraries.
You can insert a link beside each citation in Wikipedia, allowing you to export the citation to a reference manager such as
Then "Publish changes" and follow the instructions at the top of that page to
How to cite
Changing citation style formats
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