Western world

The Western world, with the West as defined in the book Clash of Civilizations (1996)[1] by Samuel P. Huntington in dark blue. Latin America, depicted in teal, is either a part of the West or a separate civilization intertwined with the West[2]
The Parthenon in Athens (c. 430 BC) and the Pantheon in Rome (c. AD 120)

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe, Australasia and the Americas, with the status of Latin America being disputed by some authors. Also known as the West, there are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated.[3] The Western world is also known as the Occident (from the Latin word occidens, "sunset, West") in contrast to the Orient (from Latin word oriens, "rise, East") or Eastern world.

Ancient Greece[a] and Ancient Rome[b] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization (whilst Greece as having shaped the development of Rome): the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science and art, building designs and proportions, architecture; the latter due to its influence on law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering, and religion. Western civilization is also founded upon Roman Catholicism and various Protestant churches), which are in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy, Judaism, and Roman culture;[4]. Likewise, the ancient Greeks had been affected by several ancient Near East civilizations.[5] In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution.[6][7] Through extensive imperialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, much of the rest of the world has been influenced by Western culture.

The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the theological, methodological and emphatical division between the Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.[8] West was originally literal, opposing Catholic Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the remote Far East which early-modern Europeans saw as the East.

By the mid-20th century worldwide export of western culture went through the new mass media: film, radio and television and recorded music, while the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication (such as Transatlantic cable and the Radiotelephone) played a decisive role in modern globalization. In modern usage, Western world sometimes[9] refers to Europe and to areas whose populations largely originate from Europe, through the Age of Discovery.[10][11]

Introduction

Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East,[5] such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel,[12][13][4] Minoan Crete, Sumer, Babylonia, and also Ancient Egypt. It originated in the Mediterranean basin and its vicinity; Ancient Greece and Rome are often cited as its birthplaces.

Gold and garnet cloisonné (and mud), military fitting from the Staffordshire Hoard before cleaning

Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas, conquering and absorbing. Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe. Christianization of Ireland (5th century), Christianization of Bulgaria (9th century), Christianization of Kievan Rus' (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus; 10th century), Christianization of Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden; 12th century) and Christianization of Lithuania (14th century) brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization.

Historians, such as Carroll Quigley in "The Evolution of Civilizations",[14] contend that Western civilization was born around AD 500, after the total collapse of the Western Roman Empire, leaving a vacuum for new ideas to flourish that were impossible in Classical societies. In either view, between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the West (or those regions that would later become the heartland of the culturally "western sphere") experienced a period of first, considerable decline,[15] and then readaptation, reorientation and considerable renewed material, technological and political development. This whole period of roughly a millennium is known as the Middle Ages, its early part forming the "Dark Ages", designations that were created during the Renaissance and reflect the perspective on history, and the self-image, of the latter period.[citation needed]

The knowledge of the ancient Western world was partly preserved during this period due to the survival of the Eastern Roman Empire and the introduction of the Catholic Church; it was also greatly expanded by the Arab importation[16][17] of both the Ancient Greco-Roman and new technology through the Arabs from India and China to Europe.[18][19]

Since the Renaissance, the West evolved beyond the influence of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the Islamic world, due to the successful Second Agricultural, Commercial,[20] Scientific,[21] and Industrial[22] revolutions (propellers of modern banking concepts) peaked with the 18th century's Age of enlightenment, through the Age of exploration's expansion of peoples of Western and Central European empires, particularly the globe-spanning colonial empires of 18th and 19th centuries.[23] Numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Catholic missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity.

Generally speaking, the current consensus would locate the West, at the very least, in the cultures and peoples of Europe (at least the European Union member states, EFTA countries, European microstates),[24][25] the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Latin America. There is debate among some as to whether Latin America as a whole is in a category of its own.[26] Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries.[27]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Weste
العربية: عالم غربي
aragonés: Occident
asturianu: Occidente
Bân-lâm-gú: Se-iûⁿ
български: Западен свят
català: Occident
čeština: Západní svět
Cymraeg: Y Gorllewin
dansk: Vesten
Ελληνικά: Δυτικός Κόσμος
español: Occidente
فارسی: جهان غرب
føroyskt: Vesturheimurin
français: Occident
galego: Occidente
한국어: 서양
hrvatski: Zapadni svijet
Bahasa Indonesia: Dunia Barat
íslenska: Vesturlönd
latviešu: Rietumu pasaule
Lëtzebuergesch: Westlech Welt
lietuvių: Vakarų pasaulis
Bahasa Melayu: Dunia Barat
монгол: Өрнө дахин
Nederlands: Westerse wereld
日本語: 西洋
norsk: Vesten
norsk nynorsk: Vesten
occitan: Occident
português: Mundo ocidental
русский: Западный мир
Scots: Occident
Simple English: Western world
slovenščina: Zahodni svet
српски / srpski: Zapadni svet
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Zapadni svijet
suomi: Länsimaat
svenska: Västvärlden
Türkçe: Batı dünyası
українська: Західний світ
粵語: 西方世界
中文: 西方世界
Lingua Franca Nova: Mundo ueste