Welsh language

Welsh
Cymraeg, y Gymraeg
Pronunciation[kəmˈraiɡ]
RegionUnited Kingdom (Wales, England), Argentina (Chubut Province)
Native speakers
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]
  • Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3]
  • England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated)
  • Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5]
  • Canada: L1,<3,885,[6]
  • United States: ~2,235 (2009–2013) (2017)
Early forms
Latin (Welsh alphabet)
Welsh Braille
Official status
Official language in
Wales
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byMeri Huws, the Welsh Language Commissioner (since 1 April 2012)[7] and the Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru)
Language codes
cy
cym (T)
ISO 639-3cym
wels1247[8]
Linguasphere50-ABA
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Welsh (Cymraeg; [kəmˈraiɡ] (About this soundlisten)) or y Gymraeg (Welsh pronunciation: [ə ɡəmˈraiɡ]) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by some in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).[9] Historically, it has also been known in English as "Cambrian",[10] "Cambric"[11] and "Cymric".[12]

Of usual residents in Wales aged three and over, 19.0% were able to speak Welsh according to the United Kingdom Census 2011. According to the 2001 Census, 20.8 per cent of the population aged 3+ were able to speak Welsh. This suggests that there was a decrease in the number of Welsh speakers in Wales from 2001 to 2011 – from about 582,000 to 562,000 respectively. However, according to the Welsh Language Use Survey 2013–15, 24 per cent of people aged three and over living in Wales were able to speak Welsh, implying a possible increase in the prevalence of the Welsh language since the 2011 census.[13]

The Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 gave the Welsh language official status in Wales,[14] making it the only language that is de jure official in any part of the United Kingdom, with English being de facto official. The Welsh language, along with English, is also a de jure official language of the National Assembly for Wales.[15]

History

This tattered Welsh Bible of 1620, in Llanwnda church, was rescued from the hands of French invaders in 1797.[citation needed]

The language of the Welsh developed from the language of Britons, according to academic T. M. Charles-Edwards.[16] The emergence of Welsh was not instantaneous and clearly identifiable. Instead, the shift occurred over a long period of time, with some historians claiming that it had happened by as late as the 9th century, with a watershed moment being that proposed by Kenneth H. Jackson, the Battle of Dyrham, a military battle between the West Saxons and the Britons in 577 AD.[17], which split the South Western British from direct overland contact with the Welsh.

Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with rather indistinct boundaries: Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh. The period immediately following the language's emergence is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh,[17] followed by the Old Welsh period – which is generally considered to stretch from the beginning of the 9th century to sometime during the 12th century.[17] The Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from then until the 14th century, when the Modern Welsh period began, which in turn is divided into Early and Late Modern Welsh.

The name Welsh originated as an exonym given to its speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning "foreign speech" (see Walha)[citation needed]. The native term for the language is Cymraeg: North/Central Wales pronunciation /kəm'raɪg/, South Wales pronunciation /kəm'ra:g/.

Origins

Welsh evolved from Common Brittonic, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Celtic Britons. Classified as Insular Celtic, the British language probably arrived in Britain during the Bronze Age or Iron Age and was probably spoken throughout the island south of the Firth of Forth.[18] During the Early Middle Ages the British language began to fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, thus evolving into Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. It is not clear when Welsh became distinct.[17][19][20]

Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around 550, and labelled the period between then and about 800 "Primitive Welsh".[21] This Primitive Welsh may have been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd ("Old North") – the Brittonic-speaking areas of what is now northern England and southern Scotland – and therefore may have been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson, however, believed that the two varieties were already distinct by that time.[17] The earliest Welsh poetry – that attributed to the Cynfeirdd or "Early Poets" – is generally considered to date to the Primitive Welsh period. However, much of this poetry was supposedly composed in the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was originally composed.[17] This discretion stems from the fact that Cumbric was widely believed to have been the language used in Hen Ogledd. An 8th-century inscription in Tywyn shows the language already dropping inflections in the declension of nouns.[22]

Janet Davies proposed that the origins of Welsh language were much less definite; in The Welsh Language: A History, she proposes that Welsh may have been around even earlier than 600 AD. This is evidenced by the dropping of final syllables from Brittonic: *bardos "poet" became bardd, and *abona "river" became afon.[19] Though both Davies and Jackson cite minor changes in syllable structure and sounds as evidence for the creation of Old Welsh, Davies suggests it may be more appropriate to refer to this derivative language as Lingua Brittanica rather than characterising it as a new language altogether.

Primitive Welsh

The argued dates for the period of "Primitive Welsh" are widely debated, with some historians' suggestions differing by hundreds of years.

Old Welsh

The next main period is Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg, 9th to 11th centuries); poetry from both Wales and Scotland has been preserved in this form of the language. As Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of Britain proceeded, the Brittonic speakers in Wales were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric, and those in the southwest, speaking what would become Cornish, and so the languages diverged. Both the works of Aneirin (Canu Aneirin, c. 600) and the Book of Taliesin (Canu Taliesin) were during this era.

Middle Welsh

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. This is the language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the Mabinogion, although the tales themselves are certainly much older. It is also the language of the existing Welsh law manuscripts. Middle Welsh is reasonably intelligible to a modern-day Welsh speaker.

The famous cleric Gerald of Wales tells, in his Descriptio Cambriae, a story of King Henry II of England. During one of the King's many raids in the 12th century, Henry asked an old man of Pencader, Carmarthenshire whether the Welsh people could resist his army. The old man replied:

It can never be destroyed through the wrath of man, unless the wrath of God shall concur. Nor do I think that any other nation than this of Wales, nor any other language, whatever may hereafter come to pass, shall in the day of reckoning before the Supreme Judge, answer for this corner of the Earth.[23]

Modern Welsh

Modern Welsh is subdivided into Early Modern Welsh and Late Modern Welsh.[24] Early Modern Welsh ran from the 15th century through to the end of the 16th century, and the Late Modern Welsh period roughly dates from the 16th century onwards. Contemporary Welsh differs greatly from the Welsh of the 16th century, but they are similar enough for a fluent Welsh speaker to have little trouble understanding it. During the Modern Welsh period there has been a decline in the popularity of the Welsh language: the number of Welsh speakers declined to the point at which there was concern that the language would become extinct. Welsh government processes and legislation have worked to increase the proliferation of the Welsh language, e.g. through education.

Welsh Bible

The 1588 Welsh Bible

The Bible translations into Welsh helped maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The New Testament was translated by William Salesbury in 1567, and the complete Bible by William Morgan in 1588.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Wallies
Alemannisch: Walisisch
አማርኛ: ዌልስኛ
Ænglisc: Wilisc sprǣc
العربية: لغة ويلزية
aragonés: Idioma galés
arpetan: Galouès
asturianu: Idioma galés
azərbaycanca: Vall dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Ui-le̍k-sū-gí
беларуская: Валійская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Валійская мова
български: Уелски език
Boarisch: Kymrisch
bosanski: Velški jezik
brezhoneg: Kembraeg
català: Gal·lès
Чӑвашла: Валли чĕлхи
čeština: Velština
Cymraeg: Cymraeg
davvisámegiella: Kymragiella
dolnoserbski: Walizišćina
Ελληνικά: Ουαλική γλώσσα
español: Idioma galés
Esperanto: Kimra lingvo
فارسی: زبان ولزی
Fiji Hindi: Welsh bhasa
føroyskt: Walisiskt mál
français: Gallois
Frysk: Welsk
Gaeilge: An Bhreatnais
Gaelg: Bretnish
Gàidhlig: Cuimris
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Wales-ngî
한국어: 웨일스어
հայերեն: Վալլիերեն
हिन्दी: वेल्श भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Walizišćina
hrvatski: Velški jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Wales
interlingua: Lingua gallese
íslenska: Velska
italiano: Lingua gallese
עברית: ולשית
ქართული: უელსური ენა
қазақша: Валлий тілі
kernowek: Kembrek
Kiswahili: Kiwelisi
لۊری شومالی: زون ولزی
latviešu: Velsiešu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Walisesch
lietuvių: Valų kalba
Limburgs: Welsh
Lingua Franca Nova: Cimrica (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Kymrin kieli
lumbaart: Lengua galesa
magyar: Walesi nyelv
македонски: Велшки јазик
მარგალური: უელსური ნინა
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Wales
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Wales-ngṳ̄
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Wales
Nederlands: Welsh (taal)
Nedersaksies: Kumries
Nordfriisk: Waliisisch
norsk: Walisisk
norsk nynorsk: Walisisk
Nouormand: Gallouais
occitan: Galés
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Valliy tili
پنجابی: ویلزی
Перем Коми: Кöмри кыв
Piemontèis: Lenga galèisa
Plattdüütsch: Walisische Spraak
português: Língua galesa
română: Limba galeză
rumantsch: Lingua valisica
Runa Simi: Kamri simi
Scots: Welsh leid
Seeltersk: Walisisk
sicilianu: Lingua gallisa
Simple English: Welsh language
slovenčina: Waleština
slovenščina: Valižanščina
ślůnski: Walijsko godka
српски / srpski: Велшки језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Velški jezik
suomi: Kymri
svenska: Kymriska
Tagalog: Wikang Gales
Türkçe: Galce
українська: Валлійська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ۋېلش تىلى
vepsän kel’: Uel'san kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Wales
walon: Walès
粵語: 威爾斯文
Zazaki: Welizki
中文: 威尔士语