Water

Water in two states: liquid (including the clouds, which are examples of aerosols), and solid (ice).

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity.

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's crust water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation.[2][3] Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.[2] A greater quantity of water is found in the earth's interior.[4]

Water on Earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Large amounts of water are also chemically combined or adsorbed in hydrated minerals.

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.[5] However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.[6] A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.[7]

Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture.[8] Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil and natural gas) and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water is also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, and diving.

Etymology

The word "water" comes from Old English "wæter", from Proto-Germanic "*watar" (source also of Old Saxon "watar", Old Frisian "wetir", Dutch "water", Old High German "wazzar", German "Wasser", Old Norse "vatn", Gothic "wato"), from Proto-Indoeuropean "*wod-or", suffixed form of root "*wed-" ("water"; "wet")[9].

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Water
Alemannisch: Wasser
አማርኛ: ውሃ
Ænglisc: Wæter
العربية: ماء
aragonés: Augua
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܝܐ
armãneashti: Apâ
অসমীয়া: পানী
asturianu: Agua
Atikamekw: Nipi
Avañe'ẽ: Y
авар: Лъим
Aymar aru: Uma
azərbaycanca: Su
تۆرکجه: سو
bamanankan: Ji
বাংলা: পানি
Bahasa Banjar: Banyu
Bân-lâm-gú: Chúi
башҡортса: Һыу
беларуская: Вада
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вада
भोजपुरी: पानी
Bikol Central: Tubig
Bislama: Wota
български: Вода
Boarisch: Wossa
བོད་ཡིག: ཆུ།
bosanski: Voda
brezhoneg: Dour
буряад: Уһан
català: Aigua
Чӑвашла: Шыв
Cebuano: Tubig
čeština: Voda
Chamoru: Hånom
chiShona: Mvura
corsu: Acqua
Cymraeg: Dŵr
dansk: Vand
davvisámegiella: Čáhci
Deitsch: Wasser
Deutsch: Wasser
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފެން
Diné bizaad:
dolnoserbski: Wóda
eesti: Vesi
Ελληνικά: Νερό
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Aqua
español: Agua
Esperanto: Akvo
estremeñu: Áugua
euskara: Ur
فارسی: آب
Fiji Hindi: Paani
føroyskt: Vatn
français: Eau
Frysk: Wetter
Fulfulde: Ndiyam
furlan: Aghe
Gaeilge: Uisce
Gaelg: Ushtey
Gàidhlig: Uisge
galego: Auga
贛語:
Gĩkũyũ: Mai
ગુજરાતી: પાણી
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: उदक
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Súi
한국어:
Hausa: Ruwa
Հայերեն: Ջուր
हिन्दी: जल
hornjoserbsce: Woda
hrvatski: Voda
Ido: Aquo
Igbo: Mmiri
Ilokano: Danum
Bahasa Indonesia: Air
interlingua: Aqua
Interlingue: Aqua
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᒪᖅ
Ирон: Дон
isiXhosa: Amanzi
isiZulu: Amanzi
íslenska: Vatn
italiano: Acqua
עברית: מים
Basa Jawa: Banyu
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನೀರು
Kapampangan: Danum
ქართული: წყალი
қазақша: Су
Kiswahili: Maji
Kongo: Maza
Kreyòl ayisyen: Dlo
kurdî: Av
Кыргызча: Суу
Ladino: Agua
лезги: Яд
latgaļu: Iudiņs
Latina: Aqua
latviešu: Ūdens
Lëtzebuergesch: Waasser
lietuvių: Vanduo
Ligure: Ægoa
Limburgs: Water
lingála: Mái
la .lojban.: djacu
Luganda: Amazzi
lumbaart: Aqua
magyar: Víz
मैथिली: पानी
македонски: Вода
Malagasy: Rano
മലയാളം: ജലം
Māori: Wai
मराठी: पाणी
მარგალური: წყარი
مصرى: ميه
مازِرونی: ئو
Bahasa Melayu: Air
Baso Minangkabau: Aia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Cūi
Mirandés: Auga
мокшень: Ведь
монгол: Ус
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရေ
Nāhuatl: Atl
Dorerin Naoero: Ebok
Nederlands: Water
Nedersaksies: Woater
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᓃᐲᔾ
नेपाली: पानी
नेपाल भाषा: लः
日本語:
Napulitano: Acqua
нохчийн: Хи
Nordfriisk: Weeder
Norfuk / Pitkern: Wata
norsk: Vann
norsk nynorsk: Vatn
Nouormand: Ieau
occitan: Aiga
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଜଳ
Oromoo: Bishaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Suv
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਾਣੀ
Pälzisch: Wassa
پنجابی: پاݨی
Papiamentu: Awa
پښتو: اوبه
Patois: Waata
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទឹក
Piemontèis: Eva
Plattdüütsch: Water
polski: Woda
português: Água
Qaraqalpaqsha: Suw
Ripoarisch: Wasser
română: Apă
Runa Simi: Yaku
русиньскый: Вода
русский: Вода
саха тыла: Уу
Gagana Samoa: Vai
संस्कृतम्: जलम्
sardu: Aba
Scots: Watter
Seeltersk: Woater
shqip: Uji
sicilianu: Acqua (vìppita)
සිංහල: ජලය
Simple English: Water
سنڌي: پاڻي
slovenčina: Voda
slovenščina: Voda
ślůnski: Woda
Soomaaliga: Biyo
کوردی: ئاو
српски / srpski: Вода
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Voda
Basa Sunda: Cai
suomi: Vesi
svenska: Vatten
Tagalog: Tubig
தமிழ்: நீர்
Taqbaylit: Aman
татарча/tatarça: Су
తెలుగు: నీరు
ไทย: น้ำ
тоҷикӣ: Об
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᎹ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Mahpe
ತುಳು: ನೀರ್
Türkçe: Su
Türkmençe: Suw
українська: Вода
اردو: پانی
Vahcuengh: Raemx
vèneto: Aqua
vepsän kel’: Vezi
Tiếng Việt: Nước
Volapük: Vat
Võro: Vesi
文言:
West-Vlams: Woater
Winaray: Tubig
Wolof: Ndox
吴语:
Xitsonga: Mati
ייִדיש: וואסער
Yorùbá: Omi
粵語:
Zazaki: Awe
žemaitėška: Ondou
中文:
डोटेली: पानी
ГӀалгӀай: Хий
Kabɩyɛ: Lɩm
Lingua Franca Nova: Acua