Wasp

Wasp
Temporal range: Jurassic–Present
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Vespula germanica Richard Bartz.jpg
A social wasp, Vespula germanica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
(except clade Anthophila and family Formicidae)

A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade, but are paraphyletic with respect to bees and ants.

The most commonly known wasps, such as yellowjackets and hornets, are in the family Vespidae and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality is favoured by the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally closely related to each other. However, the majority of wasp species are solitary, with each adult female living and breeding independently. Wasps play many ecological roles. Some are predators or pollinators, whether to feed themselves or to provision their nests. Many, notably the cuckoo wasps, are kleptoparasites, laying eggs in the nests of other wasps. Many of the solitary wasps are parasitoidal, meaning they lay eggs on or in other insects (any life stage from egg to adult) and often provision their own nests with such hosts. Unlike true parasites, the wasp larvae eventually kill their hosts. Solitary wasps parasitize almost every pest insect, making wasps valuable in horticulture for biological pest control of species such as whitefly in tomatoes and other crops.

Wasps first appeared in the fossil record in the Jurassic, and diversified into many surviving superfamilies by the Cretaceous. They are a successful and diverse group of insects with tens of thousands of described species; wasps have spread to all parts of the world except for the polar regions. The largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, at up to 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in length; among the largest solitary wasps is a group of species known as tarantula hawks, along with the giant scoliid of Indonesia ( Megascolia procer). The smallest wasps are solitary chalcid wasps in the family Mymaridae, including the world's smallest known insect, with a body length of only 0.139 mm (0.0055 in), and the smallest known flying insect, only 0.15 mm (0.0059 in) long.

Wasps have appeared in literature from Classical times, as the eponymous chorus of old men in Aristophanes' 422 BC comedy Σφῆκες (Sphēkes), The Wasps, and in science fiction from H. G. Wells's 1904 novel The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth, featuring giant wasps with three-inch-long stings. The name "Wasp" has been used for many warships and other military equipment.

Taxonomy and phylogeny

Wasps are paraphyletic, consisting of the clade Apocrita without ants and bees, which are not usually considered to be wasps. The Hymenoptera also contain the somewhat wasplike Symphyta, the sawflies. The familiar common wasps and yellowjackets belong to one family, the Vespidae.
Palaeovespa florissantia, a fossil wasp ( Vespinae) from the Eocene rocks of the Florissant fossil beds of Colorado, c. 34 mya

Paraphyletic grouping

The wasps are a cosmopolitan paraphyletic grouping of hundreds of thousands of species, [1] [2] consisting of the narrow-waisted Apocrita without the ants and bees. [3] The Hymenoptera also contain the somewhat wasplike but unwaisted Symphyta, the sawflies.

The term wasp is sometimes used more narrowly for the Vespidae, which includes the common wasp or yellow jacket genera Vespula and Dolichovespula and the hornets, Vespa; or simply for the common wasp and close lookalikes.

Fossils

Male Electrostephanus petiolatus fossil from the Middle Eocene, preserved in Baltic amber

Hymenoptera in the form of Symphyta ( Xyelidae) first appeared in the fossil record in the Lower Triassic. Apocrita, wasps in the broad sense, appeared in the Jurassic, and had diversified into many of the extant superfamilies by the Cretaceous; they appear to have evolved from the Symphyta. [4] Fig wasps with modern anatomical features first appeared in the Lower Cretaceous of the Crato Formation in Brazil, some 65 million years before the first fig trees. [5]

The Vespidae include the extinct genus Palaeovespa, seven species of which are known from the Eocene rocks of the Florissant fossil beds of Colorado and from fossilised Baltic amber in Europe. [6] Also found in Baltic amber are crown wasps of the genus Electrostephanus. [7] [8]

Diversity

Megascolia procer, a giant solitary species from Java in the Scoliidae. This specimen's length is 7.7 cm and its wingspan is 11.5 cm. [a] [9]

Wasps are a diverse group, estimated at over a hundred thousand described species around the world, and a great many more as yet undescribed. [10] [b] For example, there are over 800 species of fig trees, mostly in the tropics, and almost all of these has its own specific fig wasp ( Chalcidoidea) to effect pollination. [11]

Megarhyssa macrurus, a parasitoid. The body of a female is c. 2 inches (51 mm) long, with an ovipositor c. 4 inches (100 mm) long

Many wasp species are parasitoids; the females deposit eggs on or in a host arthropod on which the larvae then feed. Some larvae start off as parasitoids, but convert at a later stage to consuming the plant tissues that their host is feeding on. In other species, the eggs are laid directly into plant tissues and form galls, which protect the developing larvae from predators but not necessarily from other parasitic wasps. In some species, the larvae are predatory themselves; the wasp eggs are deposited in clusters of eggs laid by other insects, and these are then consumed by the developing wasp larvae. [11]

Tarantula hawk wasp dragging an orange-kneed tarantula to her burrow; this species has the most painful sting of any wasp. [12]

The largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, at up to 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in length. [13] The various tarantula hawk wasps are of a similar size [14] and can overpower a spider many times its own weight, and move it to its burrow, with a sting that is excruciatingly painful to humans. [12] The solitary giant scoliid, Megascolia procer, with a wingspan of 11.5 cm, [9] has subspecies in Sumatra and Java; [15] it is a parasitoid of the Atlas beetle Chalcosoma atlas. [16] The female giant ichneumon wasp Megarhyssa macrurus is 12.5 centimetres (5 in) long including its very long but slender ovipositor which is used for boring into wood and inserting eggs. [17] The smallest wasps are solitary chalcid wasps in the family Mymaridae, including the world's smallest known insect, Dicopomorpha echmepterygis (139 micrometres long) and Kikiki huna with a body length of only 158 micrometres, the smallest known flying insect. [18]

There are estimated to be 100,000 species of ichneumonoid wasps in the families Braconidae and Ichneumonidae. These are almost exclusively parasitoids, mostly utilising other insects as hosts. Another family, the Pompilidae, is a specialist parasitoid of spiders. [11] Some wasps are even parasitoids of parasitoids; the eggs of Euceros are laid beside lepidopteran larvae and the wasp larvae feed temporarily on their haemolymph, but if a parasitoid emerges from the host, the hyperparasites continue their life cycle inside the parasitoid. [19] Parasitoids maintain their extreme diversity through narrow specialism. In Peru, 18 wasp species were found living on 14 fly species in only two species of Gurania climbing squash. [20] [21]

Other Languages
العربية: زنبار
Avañe'ẽ: Káva
বাংলা: বোলতা
Bahasa Banjar: Tabuan
Bân-lâm-gú: Kak-phang
башҡортса: Һағыҙаҡтар
беларуская: Восы
català: Vespa
Чӑвашла: Сăпса
chiShona: Igo
eesti: Herilased
Ελληνικά: Σφήκα
español: Avispa
Esperanto: Vespo
euskara: Liztor
français: Guêpe
Gaeilge: Foiche
galego: Avespa
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vòng-phûng
Հայերեն: Կրետներ
हिन्दी: ततैया
Ido: Vespo
Bahasa Indonesia: Tawon
Iñupiak: Tuggayuk
íslenska: Geitungar
עברית: צרעה
Kapampangan: Tamumu
ქართული: კრაზანები
kaszëbsczi: Łasëca
Kiswahili: Nyigu
коми: Зі
Kreyòl ayisyen: Gèp
Latina: Vespa
latviešu: Lapsenes
lietuvių: Vapsvos
lingála: Eyóto
മലയാളം: കടന്നൽ
Bahasa Melayu: Penyengat
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Uòng-pŭng
नेपाली: बारुला
日本語: ハチ
Nouormand: Vêpe
occitan: Vèspa
олык марий: Пачемыш
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਭਰਿੰਡ
پنجابی: تموڑی
Перем Коми: Зі
Picard: Wépe
português: Vespa
română: Viespi
Runa Simi: Tankayllu
русский: Осы
Scots: Wasp
Simple English: Wasp
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ose
Basa Sunda: Nyiruan
తెలుగు: కందిరీగ
ไทย: ต่อ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Heóvêháhnoma
Türkçe: Yaban arısı
українська: Оса
Vahcuengh: Doq
vepsän kel’: Bapshaine
Tiếng Việt: Tò vò
Winaray: Lapinig
Wolof: Nguri
粵語: 黃蜂
žemaitėška: Vapsa
中文: 黄蜂