The Capital City of Warsaw
Warsaw panorama.png
Pałac Na Wyspie w Warszawie, widok na elewację południową.jpg
2017-05-27 Plac Zamkowy w Warszawie 1.jpg
Warszawa, ul. Nowy Świat 72-74 20170517 002.jpg
Warszawa, Rynek Starego Miasta 42-34 20170518 001.jpg
Warszawa, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 87, 89 20170516 003.jpg
Warszawa, ul. Senatorska 10 20170516 001.jpg
Wilanów Palace.jpg
Paris of the North, Phoenix City
Semper invicta  (Latin "Ever invincible")
Warsaw is located in Poland
Location within Poland
Warsaw is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 52°14′N 21°1′E / 52°14′N 21°1′E / 52.233; 21.017
Countycity county
Founded13th century
City rights1323
 • MayorRafał Trzaskowski (PO)
 • City metropolis517.24 km2 (199.71 sq mi)
 • Metro
6,100.43 km2 (2,355.39 sq mi)
78–116 m (328 ft)
 (31 December 2018)
 • City metropolis1,777,972 (1st) Increase[1]
 • Rank1st in Poland (9th in EU)
 • Density3,421/km2 (8,860/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density509.1/km2 (1,319/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
00-001 to 04–999
Area code(s)+48 22
 – TotalNominal: €57 billion
PPP: $140 billion
 – Per capitaNominal: €33,000
Official nameHistoric Centre of Warsaw
Criteriaii, vi
Designated1980 (4th [1]
UNESCO regionEurope
Varsovian Trumpet Call

Warsaw (ɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.78 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents,[5] which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).[6] Warsaw is an alpha global city,[7] a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Once described as the "Paris of the North", Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II.[8] Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was later awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari.[9][10][11] Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat. A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to even greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins.[12][13]

Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities.[14] In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world.[15] In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style".[14] It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe.

The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry. The Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe.[16][17] Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt, London and Paris, Warsaw is also one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union.[18]

The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw University of Technology, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world,[19] and the Zachęta National Gallery of Art. The picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period,[20] was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces, churches and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants,[21] with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.[22]

Etymology and names

Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa (also formerly spelled Warszewa and Warszowa). Other previous spellings of the name may have included Worszewa and Werszewa.[23][24] According to some sources,[25] the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda (the Narew drainage),[26] it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology (p. 30). Originally, Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; see also etymology of Wrocław.[27] However the ending -awa is unusual for a big city; the names of Polish cities derived from personal names usually ending in -ów/owo/ew/ewo (e.g. Piotrków, Adamów) while the -av- in the early name of Wrocław is part of a personal name. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, Wars, and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love.[28] In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood.[29] See also the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland. The official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa ("The Capital City of Warsaw").[30] A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianin (male), warszawianka (female), warszawiacy, and warszawianie (plural).

Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia (Latin, Spanish) and Varsóvia (Portuguese), Varsovie (French), Varsavia (Italian), Warschau (German, Dutch), װאַרשע /Varshe (Yiddish), Varšuva (Lithuanian), Varsó (Hungarian) and Varšava (Czech)

Other Languages
Acèh: Warsawa
Адыгэбзэ: Варшавэ
адыгабзэ: Варшавэ
Afrikaans: Warskou
Akan: Warsaw
Alemannisch: Warschau
አማርኛ: ዋርሶው
Ænglisc: Warsaw
Аҧсшәа: Варшава
العربية: وارسو
aragonés: Varsovia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܘܐܪܣܘ
armãneashti: Varșava
arpetan: Varsovie
asturianu: Varsovia
Avañe'ẽ: Varsóvia
авар: Варшава
Aymar aru: Varsovia
azərbaycanca: Varşava
تۆرکجه: ورشو
bamanankan: Warszawa
বাংলা: ওয়ারশ
Bân-lâm-gú: Warszawa
башҡортса: Варшава
беларуская: Варшава
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Варшава
Bikol Central: Warsaw
Bislama: Warsaw
български: Варшава
Boarisch: Warschau
བོད་ཡིག: ཝར་སོ།
bosanski: Varšava
brezhoneg: Varsovia
буряад: Варшава
català: Varsòvia
Чӑвашла: Варшава
Cebuano: Warszawa
čeština: Varšava
Chamoru: Warszawa
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Warszawa
Chi-Chewa: Warsaw
chiShona: Warsaw
chiTumbuka: Warszawa
corsu: Varsavia
Cymraeg: Warsaw
dansk: Warszawa
davvisámegiella: Warszawa
Deitsch: Woarschau
Deutsch: Warschau
dolnoserbski: Waršawa
eesti: Varssavi
Ελληνικά: Βαρσοβία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Varsàvia
эрзянь: Варшава ош
español: Varsovia
Esperanto: Varsovio
estremeñu: Varsóvia
euskara: Varsovia
eʋegbe: Warsaw
فارسی: ورشو
Fiji Hindi: Warsaw
føroyskt: Warszawa
français: Varsovie
Frysk: Warsjau
Fulfulde: Warsaw
Gaeilge: Vársá
Gaelg: Warszawa
Gagauz: Varşava
Gàidhlig: Warszawa
galego: Varsovia
Gĩkũyũ: Warszawa
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Warszawa
한국어: 바르샤바
Hausa: Warszawa
հայերեն: Վարշավա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Վարշաւա
हिन्दी: वारसॉ
hornjoserbsce: Waršawa
hrvatski: Varšava
Ilokano: Warsaw
Bahasa Indonesia: Warsawa
interlingua: Varsovia
Interlingue: Warszawa
Iñupiak: Warszawa
Ирон: Варшавæ
isiXhosa: Warszawa
isiZulu: IWarshawa
íslenska: Varsjá
italiano: Varsavia
עברית: ורשה
Jawa: Warsawa
Kabɩyɛ: Farsoovii
kalaallisut: Warszawa
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವಾರ್ಸಾ
къарачай-малкъар: Варшава
ქართული: ვარშავა
kaszëbsczi: Warszawa
қазақша: Варшава
kernowek: Warszawa
Kinyarwanda: Warszawa
Kirundi: Varsovie
Kiswahili: Warshawa
коми: Варшава
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vasovi
kurdî: Warşova
Кыргызча: Варшава
кырык мары: Варшава
Ladino: Varsovia
لۊری شومالی: ڤٱرشو
latgaļu: Varšova
Latina: Varsovia
latviešu: Varšava
Lëtzebuergesch: Warschau
lietuvių: Varšuva
Ligure: Varsavvia
Limburgs: Warschau
lingála: Warsaw
Livvinkarjala: Varšavu
Luganda: Warszawa
lumbaart: Varsavia
magyar: Varsó
македонски: Варшава
Malagasy: Varsôvia
മലയാളം: വാഴ്‌സ
Malti: Varsavja
Māori: Pakangakite
मराठी: वर्झावा
მარგალური: ვარშავა
مصرى: وارسو
Bahasa Melayu: Warsaw
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Warszawa
Mirandés: Warszawa
монгол: Варшав
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဝါဆောမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Warsaw
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Warszawa
Nederlands: Warschau
Nedersaksies: Warsjau
नेपाल भाषा: वार्सः
日本語: ワルシャワ
Napulitano: Varsavia
нохчийн: Варшава
Nordfriisk: Warschau
Norfuk / Pitkern: Worsaaw
norsk: Warszawa
norsk nynorsk: Warszawa
Nouormand: Varsovie
Novial: Varsava
occitan: Varsòvia
олык марий: Варшава
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ୱାରସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Varshava
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵਾਰਸਾ
پنجابی: وارسا
Papiamentu: Varsovia
Patois: Warsaa
Picard: Varsovie
Piemontèis: Varsavia
Tok Pisin: Woso
Plattdüütsch: Warschau
polski: Warszawa
português: Varsóvia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Varshava
qırımtatarca: Varşava
reo tahiti: Patava
română: Varșovia
rumantsch: Varsovia
Runa Simi: Warszawa
русиньскый: Варшава
русский: Варшава
саха тыла: Варшава
Sängö: Warsaw
sardu: Varsavia
Scots: Warsaw
Seeltersk: Warschau
Sesotho: Warsaw
Sesotho sa Leboa: Warszawa
shqip: Varshava
sicilianu: Varsavia
Simple English: Warsaw
slovenčina: Varšava
slovenščina: Varšava
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Варшава
ślůnski: Warszawa
کوردی: وارساو
српски / srpski: Варшава
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Varšava
Basa Sunda: Warsawa
suomi: Varsova
svenska: Warszawa
Tagalog: Varsovia
தமிழ்: வார்சாவா
татарча/tatarça: Варшау
tetun: Varsóvia
тоҷикӣ: Варшава
lea faka-Tonga: Warsaw
Tshivenda: Warszawa
Türkçe: Varşova
Türkmençe: Warşawa
удмурт: Варшава
українська: Варшава
اردو: وارسا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Warshawa
vèneto: Varsavia
vepsän kel’: Varšav
Tiếng Việt: Warszawa
Volapük: Warszawa
Võro: Varssavi
文言: 華沙
Winaray: Warsovya
Wolof: Warsaw
吴语: 瓦萨瓦
ייִדיש: ווארשע
Yorùbá: Warsaw
粵語: 華沙
Zazaki: Warşowa
Zeêuws: Warschau
žemaitėška: Varšova
中文: 华沙