War of 1812

  • war of 1812
    war of 1812 montage.jpg
    clockwise from top: damage to the united states capitol after the burning of washington; mortally wounded isaac brock spurs on the york volunteers at the battle of queenston heights; uss constitution vs hms guerriere; the death of tecumseh in 1813; andrew jackson defeats the british assault on new orleans in 1815
    datejune 18, 1812 – february 17, 1815
    (2 years and 8 months)
    location
    eastern and central america; atlantic and pacific oceans
    result treaty of ghent
    • military stalemate
    • status quo ante bellum
    • defeat of tecumseh's confederacy
    belligerents
     united states
    • choctaw
    • cherokee
    • creek
    • seneca
     united kingdom
    •  the canadas
    • tecumseh's confederacy[a]
    • shawnee
    • creek red sticks
    • ojibwe
    • fox
    • iroquois
    • miami
    • mingo
    • ottawa
    • kickapoo
    • delaware (lenape)
    • mascouten
    • potawatomi
    • sauk
    • wyandot
    • kingdom of spain
    • florida (1814)
    commanders and leaders
    • united states james madison
    • united states henry dearborn
    • united states jacob brown
    • united states winfield scott
    • united states andrew jackson
    • united states william henry harrison
    • united states william h. winder pow)
    • united states william hull surrendered pow)
    • united states zebulon pike 
    • united states oliver hazard perry
    • united states isaac chauncey
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland george, prince regent
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland lord liverpool
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland sir george prévost
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland sir isaac brock 
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland gordon drummond
    • lower canada charles de salaberry
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland roger hale sheaffe
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland robert ross 
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland edward pakenham 
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland james fitzgibbon
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland alexander cochrane
    • united kingdom of great britain and ireland james lucas yeo
    • tecumseh 
    • spain mateo manrique surrendered
    strength
      • u.s. army:
        • 7,000 (at war's start)
        • 35,800 (at war's end)
        • rangers: 3,049
      • militia: 458,463*
      • u.s. marines
      • u.s. navy and revenue cutter service (at war's start):
        • frigates: 12
        • other vessels: 14
    • privateers: 515 ships[1]
    • indian allies:
      • 125 choctaw
      • unknown others[2]
      • british army:
        • 5,200 (at war's start)
        • 48,160 (at war's end)
      • provincial regulars: 10,000
      • militia: 4,000
      • royal marines
      • royal navy
        • ships of the line: 11
        • frigates: 34
        • other vessels: 52
      • provincial marine (at war's start): ‡
        • ships: 9
    • indian allies: 10,000–15,000[3][1]
    casualties and losses

    2,200–3,721 killed in action[4]

    • 4,505 wounded
    • est. 15,000 died from all causes[b]
    • 4,000 slaves freed [5]
    • 20,000 captured[6][7]
    • 8 frigates captured or burned
    • 278 privateers captured
    • 1,400 merchant ships captured

    british empire:
    1,160 [8]–1,960 killed[1][c] in action

    • 3,679+ wounded
    • 10,000 died from all causes[1][d]
    • 4 frigates captured
    • ~1,344 merchant ships captured (373 recaptured)[4]
    • 15,500 captured

    indian allies:
    10,000 dead from all causes (warriors and civilians)[1][e]

    • unknown captured
    •  * some militias operated in only their own regions.
    •   killed in action
    •  ‡ a locally raised coastal protection and semi-naval force on the great lakes

    the war of 1812 was a conflict fought between the united states and the united kingdom, with their respective allies, from june 1812 to february 1815. historians in britain often see it as a minor theatre of the napoleonic wars; historians in the united states and canada see it as a war in its own right.

    from the outbreak of war with napoleonic france, britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to france, which the us contested as illegal under international law. to man the blockade, britain pressed american merchant sailors into the royal navy. american sentiment grew increasingly hostile toward britain due to incidents such as the chesapeake–leopard affair, which happened five years before the war. the british were in turn outraged by the little belt affair in 1811, in which 11 british sailors died.[9][10] britain supplied arms to american indians who raided american settlers on the frontier, hindering american expansion and provoking resentment.[11] historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of british north america (canada) contributed to the american decision to go to war. however, the western interest was in expansion into american territories such as indiana, illinois, michigan, and wisconsin, where they were threatened by indians supported by the british. on june 18, 1812, president james madison signed into law the american declaration of war, after heavy pressure from the war hawks in congress.[12]

    with most of its army in europe fighting napoleon, britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations initially limited to the border and the western frontier. american prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity, especially in new england, where it was referred to as "mr. madison's war". american defeats at the siege of detroit and the battle of queenston heights thwarted attempts to seize upper canada, improving british morale. american attempts also failed to invade lower canada and capture montreal. in 1813, the americans won the battle of lake erie, gaining control of the lake, and they defeated tecumseh's confederacy at the battle of the thames, securing a primary war goal. the americans made a final attempt to invade canada but fought to a draw at the battle of lundy's lane during the summer of 1814. at sea, the powerful royal navy blockaded american ports, cutting off trade and allowing the british to raid the coast at will. in 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the americans later repulsed british attempts to invade new york and maryland, ending invasions from canada into the northern and mid-atlantic states. in early 1815, the americans decisively defeated the invading british army attacking new orleans, louisiana. fighting also took place in spanish florida; a two-day battle for the city of pensacola ended in spanish surrender.[13]

    in britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation, and merchants demanded to reopen trade with america. with the abdication of napoleon, britain's war with france ended and britain ceased impressment of american sailors. this made the original cause of the war irrelevant. the british were then able to increase the strength of the blockade on the united states coast, smothering american maritime trade, but their attempts failed to invade america, at which point both sides began to desire peace.[14]

    peace negotiations began in august 1814, and the treaty of ghent was signed on december 24, 1814. news of the peace did not reach america for some time. in february 1815, news reached the east coast concerning the great victory at new orleans—at the same time as news of the christmas peace treaty. the americans triumphantly celebrated the restoration of their national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the era of good feelings, a period of national unity. the treaty was unanimously ratified by the us senate on february 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes.[15]

  • origin
  • forces
  • declaration of war
  • course of war
  • treaty of ghent
  • losses and compensation
  • long-term consequences
  • memory and historiography
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • sources
  • further reading
  • external links

War of 1812
War of 1812 Montage.jpg
Clockwise from top: damage to the United States Capitol after the Burning of Washington; mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights; USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere; The death of Tecumseh in 1813; Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
DateJune 18, 1812 – February 17, 1815
(2 years and 8 months)
Location
Eastern and Central America; Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Result Treaty of Ghent
Belligerents
 United States
 United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Strength
    • U.S. Army:
      • 7,000 (at war's start)
      • 35,800 (at war's end)
      • Rangers: 3,049
    • Militia: 458,463*
    • U.S. Marines
    • U.S. Navy and Revenue Cutter Service (at war's start):
      • Frigates: 12
      • Other vessels: 14
  • Privateers: 515 ships[1]
  • Indian allies:
    • 125 Choctaw
    • unknown others[2]
Casualties and losses

2,200–3,721 killed in action[4]

  • 4,505 wounded
  • est. 15,000 died from all causes[b]
  • 4,000 slaves freed [5]
  • 20,000 captured[6][7]
  • 8 frigates captured or burned
  • 278 privateers captured
  • 1,400 merchant ships captured

British Empire:
1,160 [8]–1,960 killed[1][c] in action

  • 3,679+ wounded
  • 10,000 died from all causes[1][d]
  • 4 frigates captured
  • ~1,344 merchant ships captured (373 recaptured)[4]
  • 15,500 captured

Indian allies:
10,000 dead from all causes (warriors and civilians)[1][e]

  • Unknown captured
  •  * Some militias operated in only their own regions.
  •   Killed in action
  •  ‡ A locally raised coastal protection and semi-naval force on the Great Lakes

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and the United Kingdom, with their respective allies, from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars; historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right.

From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain pressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. American sentiment grew increasingly hostile toward Britain due to incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war. The British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair in 1811, in which 11 British sailors died.[9][10] Britain supplied arms to American Indians who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment.[11] Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America (Canada) contributed to the American decision to go to war. However, the Western interest was in expansion into American territories such as Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, where they were threatened by Indians supported by the British. On June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed into law the American declaration of war, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress.[12]

With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations initially limited to the border and the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity, especially in New England, where it was referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts also failed to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, and they defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of the Thames, securing a primary war goal. The Americans made a final attempt to invade Canada but fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans later repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions from Canada into the northern and mid-Atlantic states. In early 1815, the Americans decisively defeated the invading British Army attacking New Orleans, Louisiana. Fighting also took place in Spanish Florida; a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender.[13]

In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation, and merchants demanded to reopen trade with America. With the abdication of Napoleon, Britain's war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment of American sailors. This made the original cause of the war irrelevant. The British were then able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, smothering American maritime trade, but their attempts failed to invade America, at which point both sides began to desire peace.[14]

Peace negotiations began in August 1814, and the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. In February 1815, news reached the East Coast concerning the great victory at New Orleans—at the same time as news of the Christmas peace treaty. The Americans triumphantly celebrated the restoration of their national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes.[15]

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Gewinn of 1812
العربية: حرب 1812
Bân-lâm-gú: 1812 nî Chiàn-cheng
भोजपुरी: 1812 के युद्ध
Cymraeg: Rhyfel 1812
فارسی: جنگ ۱۸۱۲
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Gàidhlig: Cogadh 1812
한국어: 1812년 전쟁
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang tahun 1812
íslenska: Stríðið 1812
עברית: מלחמת 1812
la .lojban.: 1812moi nanca jamna
Bahasa Melayu: Perang 1812
Nederlands: Oorlog van 1812
日本語: 米英戦争
norsk nynorsk: 1812-krigen
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Angliya-amerika urushi
پنجابی: 1812 دی لڑائی
Scots: War o 1812
සිංහල: 1812 යුද්ධය
Simple English: War of 1812
српски / srpski: Рат из 1812.
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rat iz 1812.
Türkçe: 1812 Savaşı