War

Ancient warfare: Stele of the Vultures, c 2500 BC Medieval warfare: Battle of Hastings, 1066
Nuclear warfare: Nuclear weapon test, 1954 Early modern warfare: Retreat from Moscow, 1812
Modern warfare: Into the Jaws of Death, 1944 Industrial age warfare: Battle of the Somme, 1916

Clockwise from top left: Ancient warfare: Stele of the Vultures, c 2500 BC. Medieval warfare: Battle of Hastings, 1066. Early modern warfare: Retreat from Moscow, 1812. Industrial age warfare: Battle of the Somme, 1916. Modern warfare: Into the Jaws of Death, 1944. Nuclear warfare: Nuclear weapon test, 1954.

War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties.

The scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology (i/ MOL-ə-jee), from the Greek polemos, meaning "war", and -logy, meaning "the study of".

While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural, economic, or ecological circumstances.[3]

Etymology

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

The English word war derives from the 11th-century Old English words wyrre and werre, from Old French werre (also guerre as in modern French), in turn from the Frankish *werra, ultimately deriving from the Proto-Germanic *werzō 'mixture, confusion'. The word is related to the Old Saxon werran, Old High German werran, and the German verwirren, meaning “to confuse”, “to perplex”, and “to bring into confusion”.[4]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oorlog
Alemannisch: Krieg
አማርኛ: ጦርነት
العربية: حرب
aragonés: Guerra
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܪܒܐ
armãneashti: Polimu
asturianu: Guerra
azərbaycanca: Müharibə
تۆرکجه: ساواش
বাংলা: যুদ্ধ
Bân-lâm-gú: Chiàn-cheng
Basa Banyumasan: Perang
башҡортса: Һуғыш
беларуская: Вайна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вайна
भोजपुरी: जुद्ध
български: Война
བོད་ཡིག: དམག་འཁྲུག
bosanski: Rat
brezhoneg: Brezel
буряад: Дайн
català: Guerra
Чӑвашла: Вăрçă
Cebuano: Gubat
čeština: Válka
Chamoru: Gera
Chi-Chewa: Nkhondo
chiShona: Hondo
Cymraeg: Rhyfel
dansk: Krig
Deitsch: Grieg
Deutsch: Krieg
eesti: Sõda
Ελληνικά: Πόλεμος
эрзянь: Тюрема
español: Guerra
Esperanto: Milito
estremeñu: Guerra
euskara: Gerra
فارسی: جنگ
Fiji Hindi: Yudh
français: Guerre
Frysk: Oarloch
furlan: Vuere
Gaeilge: Cogadh
Gàidhlig: Cogadh
galego: Guerra
ГӀалгӀай: ТIом
贛語: 打仗
한국어: 전쟁
հայերեն: Պատերազմ
हिन्दी: युद्ध
hrvatski: Rat
Ilokano: Gubat
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang
interlingua: Guerra
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊᑭᕋᖅᑑᑎᔪᑦ
isiXhosa: Imfazwe
íslenska: Stríð
italiano: Guerra
עברית: מלחמה
Jawa: Perang
Kabɩyɛ: You
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಯುದ್ಧ
къарачай-малкъар: Къазауат
ქართული: ომი
қазақша: Соғыс
Kiswahili: Vita
коми: Тыш
Kongo: Vita
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lagè
kurdî: Şer
Кыргызча: Согуш
Latina: Bellum
latviešu: Karš
Lëtzebuergesch: Krich
lietuvių: Karas
Limburgs: Krieg
lingála: Etumba
lumbaart: Guerra
magyar: Háború
македонски: Војна
മലയാളം: യുദ്ധം
मराठी: युद्ध
მარგალური: ლჷმა
مصرى: حرب
Bahasa Melayu: Peperangan
Minangkabau: Parang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ciéng-cĕng
Mirandés: Guerra
монгол: Дайн
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စစ်ပွဲ
Nederlands: Oorlog
Nedersaksies: Kraig
नेपाल भाषा: हताः
日本語: 戦争
нохчийн: ТӀом
norsk: Krig
norsk nynorsk: Krig
Nouormand: Dgèrre
occitan: Guèrra
олык марий: Сар
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Urush
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜੰਗ
پنجابی: لڑائی
پښتو: جگړه
Patois: Waar
Picard: Dgère
Piemontèis: Guèra
Plattdüütsch: Krieg
polski: Wojna
português: Guerra
Ripoarisch: Kreech
română: Război
Runa Simi: Maqanakuy
русиньскый: Война
русский: Война
саха тыла: Сэрии
संस्कृतम्: युद्धम्
Scots: War
shqip: Lufta
sicilianu: Guerra
සිංහල: යුද්ධ
Simple English: War
سنڌي: جنگ
slovenčina: Vojna
slovenščina: Vojna
کوردی: جەنگ
српски / srpski: Рат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rat
Sunda: Bitotama
suomi: Sota
svenska: Krig
Tagalog: Digmaan
தமிழ்: போர்
татарча/tatarça: Сугыш
తెలుగు: యుద్ధం
тоҷикӣ: Ҷанг
Türkçe: Savaş
українська: Війна
اردو: جنگ
vèneto: Guera
vepsän kel’: Soda
Tiếng Việt: Chiến tranh
Võro: Sõda
walon: Guere
Winaray: Gerá
吴语: 打仗
Xitsonga: Nyimpi
ייִדיש: מלחמה
Yorùbá: Ogun
粵語: 打仗
žemaitėška: Vaina
中文: 战争