Viridiplantae

Viridiplantae
Taiwan 2009 East Coast ShihTiPing Giant Stone Steps Algae FRD 6581.jpg
An assortment of thallophyte Viridiplantae in a rock pool, Taiwan
Scientific classification e
Domain:Eukaryota
(unranked):Diaphoretickes
(unranked):Archaeplastida
(unranked):Viridiplantae
Cavalier-Smith, 1981
Subgroups
Synonyms
  • Plantae Copeland, 1938, 1956[1][2]
  • Euchlorophyta Whittaker, 1969[3]
  • Chlorophyta sensu van den Hoek & Jahns, 1978[4]
  • Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004
  • Chlorobiota Kendrick and Crane 1997
  • Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005
  • Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981[5]
  • Phyta Barkley 1939 emed. Holt & Uidica 2007
  • Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836
  • Cormobionta Rothmaler, 1948
  • Euplanta Barkley, 1949
  • Telomobionta Takhtajan, 1964
  • Embryobionta Cronquist et al., 1966
  • Metaphyta Whittaker, 1969

Viridiplantae (literally "green plants")[5] are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.[6][7][8] Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[9][10][11][12][13] They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins. More than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae exist.[14]

In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom,[15] under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae. Adl et al., who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally.[16] The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta as well as the basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae.[17][18] Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes, Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae.

A taxonomic evaluation of eukaryotes based on myosin distribution showed the Viridiplantae lost class-I myosins.[19]

Phylogeny and classification

Leliaert et al. 2012

Simplified phylogeny of the Viridiplantae, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.[20]

  • Viridiplantae
  • core chlorophytes

Cladogram

Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.[22][20][21][23][11][24][25][18][26]

Viridiplantae/

Mesostigmatophyceae

Spirotaenia

Chlorokybophyceae

Chlorophyta
Tetraphytina
Chlorophytina

Ulvophyceae

Chlorophyceae

Trebouxiophyceae

Chlorodendrophyceae

Pedinophyceae

Prasinophytes Clade VIIA

Prasinophytes Clade VIIC

Pycnococcaceae

Nephroselmidophyceae

Mamiellophyceae

Pyramimonadales

Palmophyllophyceae

Palmophyllales

Prasinococcales

Streptophyta/

Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyceae

Mesotaeniaceae

Zygnematophyceae

Embryophytes (land plants)

Coleochaetophyceae

Charophyta
Green Algae
Other Languages
العربية: نباتات خضراء
български: Viridiplantae
čeština: Zelené rostliny
español: Viridiplantae
Esperanto: Verda planto
فارسی: سبزگیاهان
français: Chlorobionta
한국어: 녹색식물
hrvatski: Zelene biljke
interlingua: Viridiplantae
italiano: Viridiplantae
Nederlands: Viridiplantae
occitan: Viridiplantae
português: Viridiplantae
Simple English: Viridiplantae
slovenčina: Zelené rastliny
svenska: Viridiplantae
Tiếng Việt: Viridiplantae
中文: 绿色植物