Viktor Orbán

Viktor Orbán
EPP Helsinki Congress in Finland, 7-8 November 2018 (45777983671) cropped.jpg
Viktor Orbán in 2018
56th Prime Minister of Hungary
Assumed office
29 May 2010
PresidentLászló Sólyom
Pál Schmitt
László Kövér (Acting)
János Áder
DeputyTibor Navracsics
Zsolt Semjén
Preceded byGordon Bajnai
In office
6 July 1998 – 27 May 2002
PresidentÁrpád Göncz
Ferenc Mádl
Preceded byGyula Horn
Succeeded byPéter Medgyessy
Member of the National Assembly
Assumed office
2 May 1990
Personal details
Viktor Mihály Orbán

(1963-05-31) 31 May 1963 (age 55)
Székesfehérvár, Hungary
Political party Hungarian:
European People's Party
Anikó Lévai (m. 1986)
ParentsErzsébet Sípos
Győző Bálint Orbán
Alma materEötvös Loránd University
Pembroke College, Oxford

Viktor Mihály Orbán[1] (Hungarian: [ˈviktor ˈorbaːn] (About this soundlisten); born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician serving as Prime Minister of Hungary since 2010. He also served as prime minister from 1998 to 2002. He is the present leader of the national conservative Fidesz party, a post he has held since 2003 and, previously, from 1993 to 2000.

Born in Székesfehérvár, Orbán studied law at Eötvös Loránd University, graduating in 1987. He briefly studied political science at Pembroke College, Oxford, before entering politics in the wake of the Autumn of Nations at the head of the reformist student movement Alliance of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége), the nascent Fidesz. He became a nationally known politician after giving an address at the 1989 reburial of Imre Nagy and other martyrs of the 1956 revolution, in which he openly demanded that Soviet troops withdraw from the country.

After the transition to democracy in 1990, he was elected to the National Assembly and served as leader of Fidesz's parliamentary caucus until 1993. Under his leadership, Orbán shifted Fidesz away from its original centre-right, classical liberal, pro-European integration platform toward right-wing national conservatism. After Fidesz won a plurality of seats in the National Assembly in the 1998 elections, Orbán became prime minister for four years at the head of a right-wing coalition government.

Fidesz narrowly lost the 2002 and 2006 elections to the Socialist Party, and Orbán spent eight years as the leader of the opposition. The Socialists' rising unpopularity, exacerbated by PM Ferenc Gyurcsány's "Őszöd speech", led to Orbán's reelection to the premiership in 2010 in a landslide victory (in coalition with the Christian Democrats). At the helm of a parliamentary supermajority, Orbán's cabinet spearheaded major constitutional and legislative reforms. Fidesz retained its supermajority in the 2014 and 2018 elections.

Orbán's social conservatism, national conservatism, soft Euroscepticism and advocacy of what he describes as an "illiberal state"[2] have attracted significant international attention. Some observers have described his government as authoritarian or autocratic.[3][4][5][6]

In August 2018, Orbán became the 2nd longest-serving prime minister after Kálmán Tisza. If his current government lasts a full term, upon its completion, he will become the longest-serving Hungarian prime minister in history.

Early life

Orbán was born on 31 May 1963 in Székesfehérvár into a rural middle-class family, as the eldest son of the entrepreneur and agronomist Győző Orbán (b. 1940)[7] and the special educator and speech therapist Erzsébet Sípos. He has two younger brothers, both entrepreneurs, Győző, Jr. (b. 1965) and Áron (b. 1977). His paternal grandfather, Mihály Orbán, practiced farming and animal husbandry. Orbán spent his childhood in two nearby villages, Alcsútdoboz and Felcsút in Fejér County;[8] he attended school there and in Vértesacsa.[citation needed] In 1977 his family moved permanently to Székesfehérvár.[9]

Orbán graduated from Blanka Teleki High School in Székesfehérvár in 1981, where he studied English. After completing two years of military service, he studied law at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, writing his master's thesis on the Polish Solidarity movement.[10] After graduation in 1987, he lived in Szolnok for two years, commuting to his job in Budapest as a sociologist at the Management Training Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food.[11]

In 1989, Orbán received a scholarship from the Soros Foundation to study political science at Pembroke College, Oxford.[12] His personal tutor was the Hegelian political philosopher Zbigniew Pelczynski.[13] In January 1990, he left Oxford and returned to Hungary to run for a seat in Hungary's first post-communist parliament.[14]

At the age of 14 and 15, he was a secretary of the communist youth organisation (KISZ) of his secondary grammar school (KISZ membership was mandatory for university admittance).[15][16] Orbán said in a later interview that his political views had radically changed during the military service: earlier he had considered himself a "naive and devoted supporter" of the Communist regime.[17]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Viktor Orbán
asturianu: Viktor Orbán
azərbaycanca: Viktor Orban
беларуская: Віктар Орбан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Віктар Орбан
български: Виктор Орбан
brezhoneg: Viktor Orbán
català: Viktor Orbán
čeština: Viktor Orbán
Deutsch: Viktor Orbán
Ελληνικά: Βίκτορ Όρμπαν
español: Viktor Orbán
Esperanto: Viktor Orbán
euskara: Viktor Orbán
français: Viktor Orbán
Gaeilge: Viktor Orbán
hornjoserbsce: Viktor Orbán
hrvatski: Viktor Orbán
Bahasa Indonesia: Viktor Orbán
Interlingue: Viktor Orbán
íslenska: Viktor Orbán
italiano: Viktor Orbán
қазақша: Виктор Орбан
latviešu: Viktors Orbāns
Lëtzebuergesch: Viktor Orbán
Limburgs: Viktor Orbán
lumbaart: Viktor Orban
македонски: Виктор Орбан
Bahasa Melayu: Viktor Orbán
Nederlands: Viktor Orbán
norsk nynorsk: Viktor Orbán
occitan: Viktor Orbán
Tok Pisin: Viktor Orbán
português: Viktor Orbán
română: Viktor Orbán
русский: Орбан, Виктор
Simple English: Viktor Orbán
slovenčina: Viktor Orbán
slovenščina: Viktor Orbán
српски / srpski: Виктор Орбан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Viktor Orbán
svenska: Viktor Orbán
Türkçe: Viktor Orbán
українська: Віктор Орбан
Tiếng Việt: Viktor Orbán
Yorùbá: Viktor Orbán